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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The programs described were developed to process GEODYN-formatted satellite altimeter data, and to apply the processed results to predict geoid undulations and gravity anomalies of inland sea areas. These programs are written in standard FORTRAN 77 and are designed to run on the NSESCC IBM 3081(MVS) computer. Because of the experimental nature of these programs they are tailored to the geographical area analyzed. The attached program listings are customized for processing the altimeter data over the Black Sea. Users interested in the Caspian Sea data are expected to modify each program, although the required modifications are generally minor. Program control parameters are defined in the programs via PARAMETER statements and/or DATA statements. Other auxiliary parameters, such as labels, are hard-wired into the programs. Large data files are read in or written out through different input or output units. The program listings of these programs are accompanied by sample IBM job control language (JCL) images. Familiarity with IBM JCL and the TEMPLATE graphic package is assumed.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: NASA-TM-100730 , REPT-89B00106 , NAS 1.15:100730
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Satellite-based altimetric data taken by GEOS-3 and SEASAT over the Black Sea and Caspian Sea are analyzed and a least squares collocation technique is used to predict the geoid undulation on a .25-degree by .25-degree grid and to transform these geoid undulations to free air gravity anomalies. This project entailed processing satellite altimeter data over inland seas for recovery of area mean gravity information. Gravity information in this area of the world is not readily available, so the possibility of obtaining it from the processing of altimeter observations is attractive. The principal objective was to complete and extend analyses done in a previous study, verify those results, and document the results and techniques. A secondary objective was to improve the algorithms and results, if possible. The approach used involved editing geoid height data to remove overland data; evaluating geoid height differences at crossover points; removing orbit errors from geoid heights using crossover differences; gridding geoid height data at .25-degree by .25-degree intervals; and estimating the gravity anomalies from gridded geoid heights using the collocation technique.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: REPT-89B00107 , NAS 1.15:100729 , NASA-TM-100729
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Attempted rocket-borne radiometer observations of molecular oxygen nighttime emission in near infrared at zero deg latitude
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: X-622-70-430 , NASA-TM-X-65670
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Near infrared radiometer for use on small sounding rockets to observe radiation emission in D region during daytime
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: X-615-69-500 , NASA-TM-X-65548
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: From a one dimensional view of temperature alone variations at the Earth's surface manifest themselves in two cyclic patterns of diurnal and annual periods, due principally to the effects of diurnal and seasonal changes in solar heating as well as gains and losses of available moisture. Beside these two well known cyclic patterns, a third cycle has been identified which occurs in values of diurnal maxima and minima soil temperature extrema at 10 cm depth usually over a mesoscale period of roughly 3 to 14 days. This mesoscale period cycle starts with precipitation cooling of soil and is followed by a power curve temperature recovery. The temperature recovery clearly depends on solar heating of the soil with an increased soil moisture content from precipitation combined with evaporation cooling at soil temperatures lowered by precipitation cooling, but is quite regular and universal for vastly different geographical locations, and soil types and structures. The regularity of the power curve recovery allows a predictive model approach over the recovery period. Multivariable linear regression models alloy predictions of both the power of the temperature recovery curve as well as the total temperature recovery amplitude of the mesoscale temperature recovery, from data available one day after the temperature recovery begins.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: NASA-TM-86163 , NAS 1.15:86163
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The subjects of infrared remote sensing of surface features for renewable resource applications is reviewed with respect to the basic physical concepts involved at the Earth's surface and up through the atmosphere, as well as the historical development of satellite systems which produce such data at increasingly greater spatial resolution. With this general background in hand, the growth of a variety of specific renewable resource applications using the developing thermal infrared technology are discussed, including data from HCMM investigators. Recommendations are made for continued growth in this field of applications.
    Keywords: EARTH RESOURCES AND REMOTE SENSING
    Type: NASA-TM-82106
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Global change biology 2 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: In 1993 a project was set up at Upper Teesdale to investigate some of the effects of predicted increased temperatures and increased nutrient availability resulting from increased litter decomposition rates, and atmospheric deposition of nitrogen, on the interaction between bracken and heather, two species which cover large areas globally. 32 2 × 2 m plots were laid out on a hillside on, and just below, the interface between the two species. Half of the plots were placed on pure bracken, and the other half on the boundary. Within each vegetation type half of the plots were covered with open-topped polythene tents to simulate climate warming, while the other plots remained open. The second treatment consisted of additional fertilizer at 50 kg N ha−1 y−1 simulating increased decomposition rates at higher temperatures and increased atmospheric nitrogen deposition. The two treatments and their controls were combined in a 2 × 2 factorial design, with two replicates in each of two blocks.Results obtained in the first two summers indicated that fronds emerged earlier in spring and senesced later in autumn inside the tents, effectively lengthening the growing season. Fronds were taller when growing in warmer conditions, and carried more pinnae. In addition, the frond density was higher inside the tents, and together these effects contributed to greatly enhanced vigour of bracken in some of the conditions predicted by General Circulation Models. It seems likely that bracken will be more competitive, and have the potential to further encroach into heather dominated areas under these conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: 15N partitioning ; Herbivory ; Grass ; Schizachyrium scoparium ; Nitrogen allocation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Nitrogen partitioning among three generations of tillers within the bunchgrass Schizachyrium scoparium var. frequens was investigated in a controlled environment as a potential mechanism of herbivory tolerance. Nitrogen-15 was transported from the labelled primary tiller generation to both shoots and roots of nondefoliated secondary and tertiary tiller generations within 24 h. Partial defoliation increased shoot nitrogen concentration of secondary and tertiary generation tillers by 110 and 120%, respectively, 24 h following defoliation. Shoot nitrogen concentration was preferentially increased by partial defoliation of tertiary generation tillers throughout the 120 h experimental period, but diminished to concentrations comparable to nondefoliated tillers within shoots of the secondary generation at 72 h. In contrast to nitrogen concentration, the total amount of nitrogen imported by secondary and tertiary generation tillers decreased 62 and 73%, respectively, 24 h following partial defoliation and did not attain values comparable to respective nondefoliated tillers. Consequently, preferential nitrogen concentration occurred in response to partial tiller defoliation without an increase in total nitrogen import based on the reduction in the total nitrogen requirement per tiller generation associated with defoliation. Estimates of both the total amount of nitrogen import and nitrogen concentration are necessary to accurately interpret the dynamics of intertiller nitrogen allocation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Soil nitrogen competition ; Competitive interactions ; Oak savannas ; Annual and perennial grasses ; Quercus
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The spatial overlap of woody plant root systems and that of annual or perennial grasses promotes competition for soil-derived resources. In this study we examined competition for soil nitrogen between blue oak seedlings and either the annual grassBromus mollis or the perennial grassStipa pulchra under controlled outdoor conditions. Short-term nitrogen competition was quantified by injecting15N at 30 cm depth in a plane horizontal to oak seedling roots and that of their neighbors, and calculating15N uptake rates, pool sizes and15N allocation patterns 24 h after labelling. Simultaneously, integrative nitrogen competition was quantified by examining total nitrogen capture, total nitrogen pools and total nitrogen allocation.Stipa neighbors reduced inorganic soil nitrogen content to a greater extent than didBromus plants. Blue oak seedlings responded to lower soil nitrogen content by allocating lower amounts of nitrogen per unit of biomass producing higher root length densities and reducing the nitrogen content of root tissue. In addition, blue oak seedlings growing with the perennial grass exhibited greater rates of15N uptake, on a root mass basis, compensating for higher soil nitrogen competition inStipa neighborhoods. Our findings suggest that while oak seedlings have lower rates of nitrogen capture than herbaceous neighbors, oak seedlings exhibit significant changes in nitrogen allocation and nitrogen uptake rates which may offset the competitive effect annual or perennial grasses have on soil nitrogen content.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-1480
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We examined the annual exchange of CO2 between the atmosphere and moist tussock and dry heath tundra ecosystems (which together account for over one-third of the low arctic land area) under ambient field conditions and under increased winter snow deposition, increased summer temperatures, or both. Our results indicate that these two arctic tundra ecosystems were net annual sources of CO2 to the atmosphere from September 1994 to September 1996 under ambient weather conditions and under our three climate change scenarios. Carbon was lost from these ecosystems in both winter and summer, although the majority of CO2 evolution took place during the short summer. Our results indicate that (1) warmer summer temperatures will increase annual CO2 efflux from both moist and dry tundra ecosystems by 45–55% compared to current ambient temperatures; (2) deeper winter snow cover will increase winter CO2 efflux in both moist and dry tundra ecosystems, but will decrease net summer CO2 efflux; and (3) deeper winter snow cover coupled with warmer summer temperatures will nearly double the annual amount of CO2 emitted from moist tundra and will result in a 24% increase in the annual CO2 efflux of dry tundra. If, as predicted, climate change alters both winter snow deposition and summer temperatures, then shifts in CO2 exchange between the biosphere and atmosphere will likely not be uniform across the Arctic tundra landscape. Increased snow deposition in dry tundra is likely to have a larger effect on annual CO2 flux than warmer summer temperatures alone or warmer temperatures coupled with increased winter snow depth. The combined effects of increased summer temperatures and winter snow deposition on annual CO2 flux in moist tundra will be much larger than the effects of either climate change scenario alone.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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