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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Chichester : Wiley-Blackwell
    Biological Mass Spectrometry 3 (1970), S. 145-154 
    ISSN: 0030-493X
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The low resolution mass spectra of several di-, tri-and tetra-methylated cyclobutanones were determined at high and low ionizing voltages. The spectra are discussed in terms of the competition between loss of CO or loss of a ketene from the molecular ion of the cyclobutanone. The mass spectral results are correlated with the known photochemical behavior of the cyclobutanones and possible mechanistic implications are discussed.
    Additional Material: 4 Tab.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Electrical activity of a population of visually responsive cells located in the vicinity of a single functionally defined neuron was recorded in the area 18 of the cat's cerebral cortex with a single tungsten microelectrode. The correlograms calculated from the mass activity record showed an existence of a rhythmic neuronal firing with an average interval near to 3 ms. When the system was activated by a visual stimulus, a line at an optimal angle moving in an optimal direction, the rhythmic activity became regular, acquiring an oscillatory sinusoidal character. This rhythmic pattern cannot be easily recognized when the activity of a single neuron is recorded. It is possible that such rhythmic activity involving large numbers of neurons contributes to the recognition of the velocity and position of the visual stimulus.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0770
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Computer Science , Physics
    Notes: Abstract The receptive fields of “complex” neurons within area 18 of the cerebral cortex of the cat were determined by a computer-assisted method using a moving light bar substantially shorter than the long diameter of the receptive field as a visual stimulus. The visual cells repeatedly generated nerve impulses when the stimulus crossed well-defined “active points” within their receptive fields. Outside of these active points, the cells remained silent. It is suggested that the receptive fields are formed by a discontinuous accumulation of such active points. When the electrical activities of two neighbouring visual neurons are recorded simultaneously, their active points do not coincide. In addition, some active points were located outside the most prominent excitatory part of the receptive field of the studied cells. Individual visual cells typically differ in the number and distribution of active points. Since these cells best respond to a stimulus moving in a certain direction, it is suggested that they may act as direction of movement and/or velocity detectors. Alternate firing of a number of neighboring cells connected to a distributed pattern of peripheral receptors may form a system which is able to code for velocity and direction of the moving stimulus.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-0649
    Keywords: 32.00 ; 35.00 ; 42.50
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The recoil of an atom due to the absorption of up to 64 photons is measured, using laser-cooled cesium atoms which are made to interfere in an atomic fountain. Measurement of the photon recoil allows a determination of ℏ/m Cs, and hence the fine-structure constant. The measurement is described and a detailed theoretical and experimental study of potential systematic errors is presented. A relative precision in the photon recoil measurement of 0.1 ppm is obtained in two hours of data collection. The measurement is currently 0.85 ppm below the accepted value of ℏ/m Cs. We cannot now formally ascribe a systematic error, but suspect that the bulk of the discrepancy is due to imperfections of the interferometer beams used to induce the Raman transitions.
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: OBJECTIVE: First popularized as neurasthenia in the late 1800s by American George Beard, asthenia has been viewed by Russian psychologists and flight surgeons as a major problem that affects cosmonauts participating in long-duration space missions. However, there is some controversy about whether this syndrome exists in space; this controversy is attributable in part to the fact that it is not recognized in the current American psychiatric diagnostic system. METHODS: To address this issue empirically, we retrospectively examined the data from our 4 1/2-year, NASA-funded study of crew member and mission control interactions during the Shuttle/Mir space program. Three of the authors identified eight items of stage 1 asthenia from one of our measures, the Profile of Mood States (POMS). Scores on these items from 13 Russian and American crew members were compared with scores derived from the opinions of six Russian space experts. RESULTS: Crew members' scores in space were significantly lower than the experts' scores on seven of the eight items, and they generally were in the "not at all" to "a little" range of the item scales. There were no differences in mean scores before and after launch or across the four quarters of the missions. There were no differences in response between Russian and American crew members. CONCLUSIONS: We could not demonstrate the presence of asthenia in space as operationally defined using the POMS. However, the POMS addresses only emotional and not physiological aspects of the syndrome, and the subject responses in our study generally were skewed toward the positive end of the scales. Further research on this syndrome needs to be done and should include physiological measures and measures that are specific to asthenia.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Psychosomatic medicine (ISSN 0033-3174); Volume 63; 6; 874-80
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Background: Anecdotal reports from space and results from simulation studies on Earth have suggested that space crewmembers may experience decrements in their interpersonal environment over time and may displace tension and dysphoria to mission control personnel. Methods: To evaluate these issues, we studied 5 American astronauts, 8 Russian cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who participated in the Shuttle/Mir space program. Subjects completed questions from subscales of the Profile of Mood States, the Group Environment Scale, and the Work Environment Scale on a weekly basis before, during, and after the missions. Results: Among the crewmembers, there was little evidence for significant time effects based on triphasic (U-shaped) or linear models for the 21 subscales tested, although the presence of an initial novelty effect that declined over time was found in three subscales for the astronauts. Compared with work groups on Earth, the crewmembers reported less dysphoria and perceived their crew environment as more constraining, cohesive, and guided by leadership. There was no change in ratings of mood and interpersonal environment before, during, and after the missions. Conclusions: There was little support for the presence of a moderate to strong time effect that influenced the space crews. Crewmembers perceived their work environment differently from people on Earth, and they demonstrated equanimity in mood and group perceptions, both in space and on the ground. Grant numbers: NAS9-19411. c 2001. Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Acta astronautica (ISSN 0094-5765); Volume 49; 3-10; 243-60
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: To improve the interpersonal climate of crewmembers involved with long-duration space missions, it is important to understand the factors affecting their interactions with each other and with members of mission control. This paper will present findings from a recently completed NASA-funded study during the Shuttle/Mir program which evaluated in-group/out-group displacement of negative emotions; changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support over time; and cultural differences. In-flight data were collected from 5 astronauts, 8 cosmonauts, and 42 American and 16 Russian mission control personnel who signed informed consent. Subjects completed a weekly questionnaire that assessed their mood and perception of their work group's interpersonal climate using questions from well-known, standardized measures (Profile of Mood States, Group and Work Environment Scales) and a critical incident log. There was strong evidence for the displacement of tension and dysphoric emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There was a perceived decrease in commander support during the 2nd half of the missions, and for American crewmembers a novelty effect was found on several subscales during the first few months on-orbit. There were a number of differences between American and Russian responses which suggested that the former were less happy with their interpersonal environment than the latter. Mission control personnel reported more tension and dysphoria than crewmembers, although both groups scored better than other work groups on Earth. Nearly all reported critical incidents came from ground subjects, with Americans and Russians showing important differences in response frequencies.
    Keywords: Life Sciences (General)
    Type: Acta astronautica (ISSN 0094-5765); Volume 48; 5-12; 777-84
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A number of interpersonal issues relevant to manned space missions have been identified from the literature. These include crew tension, cohesion, leadership, language and cultural factors, and displacement. Ground-based studies by others and us have clarified some of the parameters of these issues and have indicated ways in which they could be studied during actual space missions. In this paper, we summarize some of our findings related to social and cultural issues from a NASA-funded study conducted during several Shuttle/Mir space missions. We used standardized mood and group climate measures that were completed on a weekly basis by American and Russian crew and mission control subjects who participated in these missions. Our results indicated that American subjects reported more dissatisfaction with their interpersonal environment than their Russian counterparts, especially American astronauts. Mission control personnel were more dysphoric than crewmembers, but both groups were significantly less dysphoric than other work groups on Earth. Countermeasures based on our findings are discussed which can be applied to future multicultural space missions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd.
    Keywords: Behavioral Sciences
    Type: Acta astronautica (ISSN 0094-5765); Volume 47; 2-9; 647-55
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Important psychosocial issues involving tension, cohesion, leader support, and displacement of negative emotions were evaluated in a 4 1/2-year study involving five U.S. and four Russian Shuttle/Mir space missions. Weekly mood and group climate questionnaires were completed by five U.S. astronauts, eight Russian cosmonauts, and 42 U.S. and 16 Russian mission control subjects. There were few findings that supported our hypothesized changes in tension, cohesion, and leader support in crew and ground subjects using various time models, although crewmembers reported decreasing leader support in the 2nd half of the missions, and astronauts showed some evidence of a novelty effect in the first few weeks. There was no evidence suggesting a 3rd quarter effect among crewmembers on any of the 21 subscales evaluated. In contrast, there was strong evidence to support the hypothesized displacement of tension and negative emotions from crewmembers to mission control personnel and from mission control personnel to management. There were several significant differences in response between Americans vs. Russians, crewmembers vs. mission control personnel, and subjects in this study vs. people in comparable groups on Earth. Subject responses before, during, and after the missions were similar, and we did not find evidence for asthenia in space. Critical incidents that were reported generally dealt with events on-board the Mir and interpersonal conflicts, although most of the responses were from a relatively small number of subjects. Our findings have implications for future training and lead to a number of countermeasures.
    Keywords: Aerospace Medicine
    Type: Gravitational and space biology bulletin : publication of the American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology (ISSN 1089-988X); 14; 2; 35-45
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