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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Climate change will not only shift environmental means but will also increase the intensity of extreme events, exerting additional stress on ecosystems. While field observations on the ecological consequences of heat waves are emerging, experimental evidence is rare, and lacking at the community level. Using a novel "near-natural" outdoor mesocosms approach, this study tested whether marine summer heat waves have detrimental consequences for macrofauna of a temperate coastal community, and whether sequential heat waves provoke an increase or decrease of sensitivity to thermal stress. Three treatments were applied, defined and characterized through a statistical analysis of 15 years of temperature records from the experimental site: (1) no heat wave, (2) two heat waves in June and July followed by a summer heat wave in August and (3) the summer heat wave only. Overall, 50% of the species showed positive, negative or positive/negative responses in either abundance and/or biomass. We highlight four possible ways in which single species responded to either three subsequent heat waves or one summer heat wave: (1) absence of a response (tolerance, 50% of species), (2) negative accumulative effects by three subsequent heat waves (tellinid bivalve), (3) buffering by proceeding heat waves due to acclimation and/or shifts in phenology (spionid polychaete) and (4) an accumulative positive effect by subsequent heat waves (amphipod). The differential responses to single or sequential heat waves at the species level entailed shifts at the community level. Community-level differences between single and triple heat waves were more pronounced than those between regimes with vs. without heat waves. Detritivory was reduced by the single heat wave while suspension feeding was less common in the triple heat wave regime. Critical extreme events occur already today and will occur more frequently in a changing climate, thus, leading to detrimental impacts on coastal marine systems.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-02-28
    Description: To resolve historical misinterpretations of species descriptions and to comprehend the morphological diversity together with the distribution of Ulva compressa Linnaeus in northern Germany, a morphological and molecular study was undertaken of recently collected specimens and herbarium vouchers. Phylogenetic analyses from sequences of the plastid encoded tufA gene confirmed that U. compressa is abundant along the German Baltic Sea and North Sea coasts. We were able to genetically confirm the presence of U. compressa in the Baltic Sea below salinities of 15 PSU. However, we detected morphologies agreeing with the attached and branched tubular type material only in the North Sea, while U. compressa on Baltic Sea coasts indiscriminately exhibited a very distinct morphology of sheet-like thalli that were always unattached, with the exception of one collection site. Drifting forms were also frequently detected in the Wadden Sea, but not on the island of Helgoland. The tufA sequences of attached and tubular forms of U. compressa from the German Wadden Sea were identical to the drifting sheets found in the Wadden and Baltic Seas and the sequence divergence was extremely small at ≤0.9%. The proliferating, blade-like thalli of U. compressa appear as a nuisance ecotype that is able to form massive accumulations associated with oxygen depletion. Mass accumulations were observed to cause severe damage and increased mortality of habitat forming Zostera and Ruppia populations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: Phycomorph-Workshop, 09.10.2018, Grenaa, Denmark .
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    In:  [Invited talk] In: LLUR-Workshop, 05.03.2018, Flintbek, Germany .
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    CRC Press
    In:  In: Protocols for Macroalgae Research. , ed. by Charrier, B., Wichard, T. and Reddy, C. R. K. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla., USA, pp. 301-307. ISBN 9781498796422
    Publication Date: 2018-12-14
    Type: Book chapter , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-03-08
    Description: As one of the most abundant and ubiquitous representatives of marine and brackish coastal macrophytobenthos communities, the genus Ulva is not only an important primary producer but also of ecological and morphogenetic interest to many scientists. Ulva mutabilis became an important model organism to study morphogenesis and mutualistic interactions of macroalgae and microorganisms. Here, we report that our collections of Ulva compressa Linnaeus (1753) from Germany are conspecific with the type strains of the model organism U. mutabilis Føyn (1958), which were originally collected at Olhão on the south coast of Portugal and have from that time on been maintained in culture as gametophytic and parthenogenetic lab strains. Different approaches were used to test conspecificity: (i) comparisons of vegetative and reproductive features of cultured material of U. mutabilis and German U. compressa demonstrated a shared morphological pattern; (ii) gametes of U. compressa and U. mutabilis successfully mated and developed into fertile sporophytic first‐generation offspring; (iii) molecular phylogenetics and species delimitation analyses based on the Generalized Mixed Yule‐Coalescent method showed that U. mutabilis isolates (sl‐G[mt+]) and (wt‐G[mt‐]) and U. compressa belong to a unique Molecular Operational Taxonomic Unit. According to these findings, there is sufficient evidence that U. mutabilis and U. compressa should be regarded as conspecific.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 140 data points
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Saha, Mahasweta; Rempt, Martin; Stratil, Stephanie B; Wahl, Martin; Pohnert, Georg; Weinberger, Florian; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar (2014): Defence Chemistry Modulation by Light and Temperature Shifts and the Resulting Effects on Associated Epibacteria of Fucus vesiculosus. PLoS ONE, 9(10), e105333, https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105333
    Publication Date: 2019-04-16
    Description: The goals of this study were (1) to investigate whether Fucus vesiculosus regulates the production of its antifouling defence chemicals against microfoulers in response to light limitation and temperature shifts and (2) to investigate if different surface concentrations of defence compounds shape epibacterial communities. F. vesiculosus was incubated in indoor mesocosms at five different temperature conditions (5 to 25°C) and in outdoor mesocosms under six differently reduced sunlight conditions (0 to 100%), respectively. Algal surface concentrations of previously identified antifouling compounds - dimethylsulphopropionate (DMSP), fucoxanthin and proline – were determined and the bacterial community composition was characterized by in-depth sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene. Altogether, the effect of different treatment levels upon defence compound concentrations was limited. Under all conditions DMSP alone appeared to be sufficiently concentrated to warrant for at least a partial inhibitory action against epibiotic bacteria of F. vesiculosus. In contrast, proline and fucoxanthin rarely reached the necessary concentration ranges for self-contained inhibition. Nonetheless, in both experiments along with the direct influence of temperature and light, all three compounds apparently affected (and thereby shaped) the overall bacterial community composition associated with F. vesiculosus since tendencies for insensitivity towards all three compounds were observed among bacterial taxa that typically dominate those communities. Given that the concentrations of at least one of the compounds (in most cases DMSP) were always high enough to inhibit bacterial settlement, we conclude that the capacity of F. vesiculosus for such defence will hardly be compromised by shading or warming to temperatures up to 25°C.
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  • 9
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Papazian, Stefano; Parrot, Delphine; Burýšková, Barbora; Weinberger, Florian; Tasdemir, Deniz (2019): Surface chemical defence of the eelgrass Zostera marina against microbial foulers. Scientific Reports, 9(1), https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-39212-3
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: Dose-response experiments for yeast growth or settlement were conducted in 96-well plates impregnated with eelgrass extracts Concentrations of leaf surface extracts were related to naturally occurring concentrations on Z. marina surfaces assuming a leaf area / fresh-weight ratio of 78.99 cm2*g-1. Correspondingly, a 1-fold natural concentration of surface extract was tested when extract obtained from 0.955 cm² leaf surface was impregnated onto 0.955 cm² well surface. Concentrations of tissue extracts were dosed based on the assumption of a dry-weight / fresh-weight proportion of 10%. Correspondingly, a 1-fold natural concentration of tissue extract was tested when extract obtained from 10 mg dry weight was present in the final volume of 100 µl. The yeasts were maintained at 25°C on a shaker in liquid medium containing: 3 g of yeast extract, 3 g of malt extract, 5 g of peptone, 10 g of glucose, and sea salt 3%. For settlement assays aliquots of yeast liquid cultures were pipetted into the wells. After 2 h, the wells were emptied and cells attached to the walls were stained with Calcofluor white for 10 min. The unattached cells and the excess dye were removed by rinsing with sterile seawater, and the fluorescence of stained cells attached to the wells was measured at 350 nm excitation and 430 nm emission. For growth bioassays, 100 µl medium containing yeast cells at 0.07-0.17 initial OD610 were pipetted into the wells. Plates were incubated at 25°C on a shaker in darkness and OD610 was repeatedly measured over 20 h. Exponential growth curves were fitted with the GraphPad Prism 5.0 software package to OD data time series obtained for each well allowing determination of division rates. Division rates obtained for single wells with addition of compounds were then related to mean division rates obtained for six control wells without such addition.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 414 data points
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2015-11-10
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: PANGAEA Documentation , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/vnd.openxmlformats-officedocument.spreadsheetml.sheet
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