Symmetry, Vol. 10, Pages 381: Time-Dependent Behavior of a Circular Symmetrical Tunnel Supported with Rockbolts Symmetry doi: 10.3390/sym10090381 Authors: Wei Han Gang Wang Chuanzheng Liu Hengjie Luan Ke Wang Under the effect of initial stress and excavation disturbance, there exists interaction between rock mass and rockbolt in deeply buried tunnels. In order to fully explore the mechanism of rock mass supported with rockbolts, this article studied the time-dependent behavior of the rock mass supported with discretely mechanically or frictionally coupled (DMFC) rockbolts. The interaction model elastic solutions under distributed force model were analyzed, then the viscoelastic analytical solutions were conducted to describe the rheological properties of the coupling model, and the solutions were acquired by setting the constitutive models of the rockbolt and rock mass in terms of a one-dimensional Kelvin model and a three-dimensional Burgers model based on material properties and dimension. Several examples were performed and the influence of initial stress &sigma;0, the viscosity parameters &eta;1 and &eta;2 of the three-dimensional Burgers model as well as the pre-tension T0 on reinforcement effect were analyzed. According to the proposed model, the smaller &eta;2 is or the larger the pre-tension T0 is, the more effective the support effect. However, when the pre-tension is too large, the support effect is no longer significantly enhanced. In addition, the early reinforcement effect is controlled by the first creep stage in the Burgers model while the ultimate support effect is mainly influenced by the viscosity coefficient of the second creep stage in the Burgers model. This research can provide an important theoretical reference to guide the parameter design of rockbolt reinforcement engineering in a circular symmetrical tunnel.