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  • 1
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    Munich: Center for Economic Studies and Ifo Institute (CESifo)
    Publication Date: 2019-06-22
    Description: The amount of CO2 embedded in trade has substantially increased over the last decades. We study the trends and some drivers of the carbon content of trade over the period 1995-2009. Our main findings are the following. First, the mix of traded goods tends to have higher emission intensity than the average mix of final demand. Second, dirty countries tend to specialize in emission-intensive sectors. This finding suggests that trade liberalization may increase global emissions. Third, the share of goods produced in emission-intensive countries is rising, consequently increasing global emissions. Finally, we find that coal abundance is an important driver of net CO2 exports, and abundance increases exports. These findings highlight the importance of considering trade when designing CO2 reduction strategies. They also suggest that, if left unattended, continued growth in global trade will increase – not decrease – global CO2 emissions.
    Keywords: F18 ; Q43 ; Q54 ; C67 ; ddc:330 ; international trade ; embodied emissions ; carbon leakage ; multi-region input-output analysis ; fossil fuels ; Kyoto Protocol
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
    Type: doc-type:workingPaper
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  • 2
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    Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Economic Research (IRENE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Photovoltaic systems generate electricity around noon, when many homes are empty. Conversely, residential electricity demand peaks in the evening, when production from solar sources is impossible. Based on a randomized control trial, we assess the effectiveness of alternative demand response measures aimed at mitigating these imbalances. More precisely, through information feedback and financial rewards, we encourage households to shift electricity consumption toward the middle of the day. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we find that financial incentives induce a significant increase of the relative consumption during the period of the day when most solar radiation takes place. Information feedback, however, pushes households to decrease overall consumption, but induces no load shifting.
    Keywords: C93 ; D12 ; L94 ; Q41 ; ddc:330 ; electricity usage ; solar energy ; demand response ; randomized control trial ; smart metering
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 3
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    Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Economic Research (IRENE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: With the development of large and long panel databases, the theory surrounding panel causality evolves at a fast pace and empirical researchers may sometimes find it difficult to run the most recent techniques developed in the literature. This article presents the Stata user-written command xtgcause, which implements a procedure proposed by Dumitrescu & Hurlin (2012) for detecting Granger causality in panel datasets, and thus constitutes an effort to help practitioners understand and apply the test. The command offers the possibility to select the number of lags to include in the model by minimizing the AIC, BIC, or HQIC, and to implement a bootstrap procedure to compute p-values and critical values.
    Keywords: C23 ; C87 ; ddc:330 ; Stata ; Granger causality ; panel datasets ; bootstrap
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: The Swiss Household Energy Demand Survey (SHEDS) has been developed as part of the research agenda of the Competence Center for Research in Energy, Society, and Transition (SCCER CREST). It is designed to collect a comprehensive description of the Swiss households' energy-related behaviors, their longitudinal changes and the existing potentials for future energy demand reduction. The survey has been planned in five annual waves thus generating a rolling panel dataset of 5,000 respondents per wave. The first two waves of SHEDS were fielded in April 2016 and April-May 2017. This paper elaborates on SHEDS's general objectives, design, and implementation. It also reports a series of practical examples of how the datasets are being used in empirical analyses.
    Keywords: Q40 ; C80 ; ddc:330 ; energy ; longitudinal survey ; Switzerland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 5
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    Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Economic Research (IRENE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: This paper investigates how households respond to efficiency improvement of their heating system. Micro-level rebound effects are estimated using a survey with an innovative choice experiment based on the stated preference approach. The experiment design allows to identify the direct and indirect rebound effects as well as their possible trade-offs at the household level. A series of easy discrete choices have been designed to prime respondents and make them think about potential actions impacting their heating service demand. Answers to these discrete choices are moreover used to cross-validate the quantitative results. Overall, we find relatively low direct rebound effects. However, after considering indirect rebound effects calculated as embodied primary energy, we estimate a total rebound of more than one third. The econometric analysis points to substantial variation across individuals that is only partly explained by observed characteristics. The results are consistent with the conjunction that heating is a basic need that calls for little rebound in high-income groups.
    Keywords: D12 ; Q41 ; Q47 ; R22 ; ddc:330 ; Rebound effects ; energy efficiency ; residential heating
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 6
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    Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Economic Research (IRENE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Obtaining the routing distance between two addresses should not be a hassle in the current state of technology. This is unfortunately more complicated than it first seems. Recently, several Stata commands have been implemented for this purpose (traveltime, traveltime3, mqtime, osrmtime), but most of them went out of order only a few months after their introduction or appear as complicated to use. In this paper, we introduce the new command georoute to retrieve travel distance and travel time between two points, defined either by their addresses or by their geographical coordinates. Compared to other existing commands, we argue it is simple to use, efficient in terms of computational speed, and versatile regarding the information that can be provided as input.
    Keywords: C87 ; R41 ; ddc:330 ; Stata ; geocoding ; travel distance ; travel time
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 7
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    Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Economic Research (IRENE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: This paper investigates demand responses to variations in the characteristics of the vehicles. Our investigation is based on number of sales for each model marketed over the period 2006-2015 in Switzerland, and puts particular emphasis on fuel efficiency, curb weight, horsepower, and the potential interactions between these attributes. We find that market shares are significantly higher for more efficient and powerful vehicles, while light cars are preferred to heavy ones. Our results also point to a gradual increase of sensitivity to fuel efficiency over the last decade. However, interaction effects between engine fuel efficiency and power indicate a lower marginal valuation of fuel efficiency in the market segments for relatively powerful cars, hence a lower sensitivity to fuel efficiency among the consumers with the highest potential for polluting emissions. Also, these findings point to potential rebound effects, where consumers give up part of the expected fuel savings by purchasing more powerful vehicles.
    Keywords: D12 ; Q41 ; R41 ; ddc:330 ; willingness-to-pay ; engine fuel efficiency ; car weight ; horsepower ; rebound effect
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 8
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    Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Economic Research (IRENE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: This paper investigates the impacts of the Swiss CO2 levy on households' heating demand. Using a difference-in-differences approach combined with inverse probability of treatment weighting, we test whether the 2016 carbon tax rate increase had a short-term impact on Swiss households' heating consumption and propensity to renovate. Micro-level data from the 2016 and 2017 waves of the Swiss Household Energy Demand Survey (SHEDS) are used to estimate the models. In both cases, no statistically significant effect can be detected across a variety of specifications. Even though further research is needed to investigate possible long-run impacts, our findings question the relevance of this policy instrument under its current form to lower households' greenhouse gas emissions. Additional measures might be implemented to improve its efficiency.
    Keywords: C21 ; C23 ; H23 ; Q41 ; Q58 ; ddc:330 ; Carbon tax ; energy consumption ; fossil fuel ; policy evaluation ; inverse probability of treatment weighting ; difference-in-differences
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 9
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    Heidelberg: Springer
    Publication Date: 2018-11-29
    Description: Using data over 1991–2008 for Switzerland, we investigate job stability through a series of Cox proportional hazards models. Our baseline results show that employment has become less stable for older male workers, with less noticeable change for other groups. However, when destination states are considered in the model, results indicate that younger workers face more transitions towards unemployment than before, whereas older male workers’ greater instability is caused by an increase in transitions to inactivity. It thus appears that the situation of young workers has deteriorated, while the evolution of older men’s job stability is at least partly explained by the increasing number of early retirements. For women, our results are largely consistent with their increasing participation rate and attachment to the labor market.
    Keywords: J63 ; J62 ; C41 ; ddc:330 ; job stability ; tenure ; lifetime jobs ; duration models ; Switzerland
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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  • 10
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    Neuchâtel: University of Neuchâtel, Institute of Economic Research (IRENE)
    Publication Date: 2019-03-05
    Description: Improvements in cars' fuel efficiency may induce people to travel more, taking back some of the potential fuel savings. This behavior, known as the (direct) rebound effect, has received much attention in the literature. However, no consensus has been reached regarding its size or the methodology to measure it. In this paper, we estimate the rebound effect for private vehicle transportation in Switzerland using individual household data. We estimate a system of equations that explain travel distance, fuel efficiency, and vehicle weight using seemingly unrelated regressions. Our results point to substantial rebound effects ranging from 57% to 82%, which lie at the higher end of the estimates obtained in the literature, but concur with findings in other European countries. Importantly, our results also indicate that OLS estimates of the rebound tend to be under-estimated rather than over-estimated as usually assumed.
    Keywords: C31 ; D12 ; Q41 ; R41 ; ddc:330 ; rebound effect ; travel demand ; simultaneous equations model
    Repository Name: EconStor: OA server of the German National Library of Economics - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics
    Language: English
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