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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2932
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Bioremediation of crude oil in salt marsh mesocosms growingSpartina alterniflora was investigated during winter and summer to determine the influence of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) fertilization, flooding, and season. Fertilization with urea and ammonium (NH 4 + ) applied at 75 or 150 kg N ha−1 with or without P did not significantly (p=0.05) increase oil or hydrocarbon degradation in continuously flooded mesocosms over an 82 day period during winter (temperature range of 17 to 30 °C). Phosphorus applied at 40 kg P ha−1 significantly (p = 0.05) increased oil and hydrocarbon degradation. Nitrate (NO 3 − ) ) added alone did not increase oil or hydrocarbon degradation, but when added with P, it significantly (p = 0.05) increased degradation above that for P alone. Up to 70% of applied oil and 75% of applied hydrocarbons were degraded in P supplemented treatments. Inipol, an oleophilic fertilizer containing N, P, and a dispersant, significantly increased oil and hydrocarbon degradation. During a 40 day summer experiment (temperature range of 27–42 °C), N and P fertilization did not increase oil or hydrocarbon degradation. For continuously flooded treatments, 72% of applied hydrocarbons were degraded while 51% were degraded in alternately flooded treatments. Mesocosms provided conditions suitable for quantitative recovery of oil and results indicated that N and P fertilization, flooding, and season interacted to influence oil bioremediation. Even under the most favorable conditions, more than 1 month was required for most of the oil to disappear.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: cardiac dilatation ; collagen loss ; disulfides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract There is a complex collagen network in the heart. Various components have been identified and generally on the basis of form and position some functions have been ascribed to one or another of these components. Since the various components all appear to be connected in a hierarchial network of some type assigning function is not difficult but demonstrating a given function is somewhat hazardous. We have demonstrated that two I.V. infusions of disulfide reagents one week apart activates a collagenolytic system that results in near complete loss of the collagen struts that interconnect myocytes, the collagen struts that connect capillaries to all adjacent myocytes and the weave complex that surrounds groups of myocytes. Increases in pre load or afterload result in responses indicating that the disulfide treated animals generate pressure equal to or greater than the control hearts, thus, the treatment has no affect on either myocyte contractility or force delivery to the ventricle. However, static pressure volume measurements in the disulfide treated animals are shifted far to the right indicating marked dilatation of the ventricle and increase in distensibility. This indicates that the weave complex contributes to the initial rectilinear portion of the pressure volume curve.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    The European physical journal 90 (1993), S. 27-46 
    ISSN: 1434-6036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract A new method for characterizing acoustic flux propagation in anisotropic media is introduced and developed. The technique, which we call ultrasonic flux imaging (UFI), utilizes a pair of water-immersion focused acoustic transducers as a point source and point detector. Raster scanning one transducer produces a transmission pattern which exhibits the anisotropies in acoustic flux known as “phonon focusing” modulated by interference between sheets of the acoustic wave surface. This “internal diffraction” is studied theoretically taking into account the anisotropy of the medium, the boundary conditions between the solid and the water, and the pressure fields produced by the transducers. In addition to bulk effects, the images reveal interesting critical-cone structures associated with the water/solid interface. The theoretical predictions agree well with experimental observations in silicon and a number of other materials, including single-crystal metals, insulators, and semiconductors. All measurements are made at room temperature, in contrast to the cryogenic requirements of previous phononimaging techniques. As a new method, UFI holds promise for examining anisotropies in the vibrational properties, and, possibly, electron-phonon coupling in metals and superconductors. The principles and techniques may also have application to non-destructive characterization of textured polycrystalline and composite materials.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Arachis ; Bradyrhizobium ; heat-shock proteins ; nitrogen fixation ; peanut ; root temperature
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Three strains of Bradyrhizobium, 280A, 2209A and 32H1, that nodulated peanuts (Arachis hypogaea L.), were tested for their ability to grow and survive at elevated temperatures of up to 42°C in laboratory culture. Strain 32H1 was unable to grow at 37°C and was more sensitive to elevated temperatures than the other two strains. All three produced heat-shock proteins of molecular weights 17 kDa and 18 kDa. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effect of high root temperature on nodulation, growth and nitrogen fixation of peanut. Two peanut varieties (Virginia cv NC7 and Spanish cv Pronto) were inoculated and exposed to root temperatures of 30°, 37° and 40°C. Nodulation and nitrogen fixation were strongly affected by root temperature but there was no variety × temperature interaction. At a constant 40°C root temperature no nodules were formed. Nodules were formed when roots were exposed to this temperature with diurnal cycling but no nitrogen fixation occurred. Highest plant dry weight, shoot nitrogen content and total nitrogen were observed at a constant root temperature of 30°C. Increasing root temperature to 37°C reduced average nitrogen content by 37% and total nitrogen by 49% but did not reduce nodulation. The symbiotic performance of the strains corresponded to their abilities to grow and survive at high temperature in culture.
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 36 (1972), S. 219-222 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary MPN (most-probable-number) counts of rhizobia by using legumes grown in plastic pouches were essentially equal to pour-plate counts. By using plastic pouches, 60 growth units could be placed in 684 cm2 of bench space, and only 20 minutes were required to prepare and seed 60 plastic pouches for inoculations.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: cowpea ; green manure ; growth stage ; N mineralization
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L). Walp.] has great potential as green manure due to its rapid N accumulation and efficient N2 fixation. The objective of this study was to measure the rate of N mineralization from cowpea plant parts harvested at onset of flowering (5 weeks) and mid pod-fill (7 weeks) under near optimum conditions. Cowpeas were grown in a greenhouse and supplied with 15NH4 15NO3 to isotopically label tissue. Cowpea leaves, stems, and roots were incorporated into a sandy soil (Psammentic Paleustalf) and net N mineralized was measured several times during a 10 week incubation. The amount of N accumulated in 7-week old cowpeas was more than double that in 5-week old cowpeas. The portion of N mineralized after 10 weeks was 24% for 5-week old cowpeas and 27% for 7-week old cowpeas. The rate of N mineralization from leaves and stems increased with plant age, but decreased for roots. The amount of N mineralized from 7-week old cowpeas was more than double (235%) that from 5-week old cowpeas due to greater N accumulation and a more rapid rate of N mineralization of the more mature cowpeas. The greatest amount of N was released from leaves, which amounted to 74 and 65% of total N mineralization from 5- and 7-week old cowpeas, respectively. The percentage of N mineralized by 10 weeks was linearly related to the tissue N concentration of the plant parts and to their C/N ratio. These relationships allow a quick estimation of the amount of N that would mineralize from cowpea residues incorporated into soil based on their N concentration or C/N ratio.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 158 (1994), S. 135-139 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: clover ; inoculation ; nitrogen fixation ; nodulation ; rhizobia ; Trifolium
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract The relationship between numbers of rhizobia and nodulation response of legumes is of considerable practical importance. Experiments were done under controlled conditions to determine the influence of numbers of Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar. trifolii on nodulation of arrowleaf clover (Trifolium vesiculosum Savi.) and crimson clover (T. incarnatum L.). Numbers of rhizobia in excess of 1000 per seed did not substantially increase earliness of nodulation or total number of nodules formed on the taproot. Nodules, however, were formed nearer the top of the taproot as numbers of rhizobia increased to 100,000 per seed. Delayed inoculation experiments indicated that nodulation sites for these clovers only remained susceptible to infection for less than 1 day. Delaying inoculation for 4 days resulted in only a 1 to 2 day delay in nodulation for arrowleaf and crimson clovers respectively and no delay for subterranean clover (T. subterraneum L.). Apparently, larger seedlings nodulated faster.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Nitrogen fixation ; Rhizobia ; Vigna unguiculata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Biological nitrogen fixation is considered an important trait of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. var. ‘California Blackeye’ No. 5) for economical production yet the process does not alone provide the quantity of nitrogen required by the plant for maximum productivity. Two experiments were undertaken to determine the potential of an increase in nodule mass and number of bacteroids resulting in increased nitrogen fixation. Cowpeas were grown in a glasshouse for 7 weeks under conditions forcing near total dependence on biological nitrogen fixation for growth. Nodule mass on the roots was varied by inoculating seeds with various ratios of effective and ineffective rhizobia that could be identified serologically and by the color of nodule formed. The results of both experiments demonstrated a linear relationship between total nodule mass formed by the effective rhizobia and quantity of nitrogen fixed. The regression coefficients were high in both experiments (r=0.99** and 0.91**). The relationship between total nitrogen fixed and total number of bacteroids of the effective strain was not consistent. In one experiment the regression coefficient was 0.93** but in the other experiment it was 0.65**. From these results it appears that there is good potential for increasing nitrogen fixation in cowpeas by increasing nodule mass. An increase in nodule mass would also result in an increase in the number of bacteroids.
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 116 (1989), S. 129-131 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: 15N ; nitrogen fixation ; nitrogen partitioning ; translocationVigna unguiculata
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Two days after exposure of roots to15N labeled N2, partitioning of biologically fixed N into leaves, stems, peduncles, pods, roots and nodules was measured in the early pod development stage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.). The experimental objective was to determine the quantity of biologically fixed N that is incorporated into vegetative tissue before being mobilized to pods. For the three varieties of cowpea included in the experiment a maximum of 50% of the N, biologically fixed two days earlier, was contained in the pods. The remaining N was distributed throughout the vegetative portion of the plant with at least 30% in stems and leaves which indicates that much of the newly fixed N must cycle through a N pool in these tissues before reaching the pods.
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Plant and soil 126 (1990), S. 209-213 
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Cyamopsis ; guar ; heat ; nitrogen fixation ; rhizobia
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Guar (Cyamopsis tetregonoloba (L.) may be grown when soil temperatures are potentially high enough at the time of planting to inhibit nodulation and N2 fixation. An experiment was conducted using controlled conditions to determine the influence of high root temperature on growth and N2 fixation of guar. The experiment included two strains of rhizobia, two varieties of guar, two mineral N treatments, and root temperatures of 34, 37, and 40°C. Plants were grown for 44 days. The root temperature of 40°C reduced N fixation by at least 80% and nodule weight by more than 50%. Significant interactions occurred between most factors in influencing nodulation, N2 fixation and dry matter production. Guar, nodulated by rhizobial strain GAR022-1 and fully dependent on N2 fixation or provided with starter mineral N (25 mg pot−1), was not influenced by the root temperature of 37°C as compared to 34°C. Nodulation and N2 fixation by strain 32H1 was reduced by at least 40% when no starter mineral N was provided and the root temperature was 37°C. Providing starter mineral N to one variety of guar doubled the quantity of N2 fixed by strain 32H1 at both 34 and 37°C but N2 fixation was lower at the higher root temperature. It appears that root temperatures between 37° and 40°C bracketed the critical root temperature for N2 fixation by nodulated guar and that the critical root temperature for guar dependent on mineral N was above 40°C.
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