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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-02-01
    Description: Estuaries are sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, our present knowledge of N2O and CH4 emissions from estuaries in the tropics is very limited because data are scarce. In this study, we present first measurements of dissolved N2O and CH4 from two estuaries in a peat-dominated region of northwestern Borneo. Two campaigns (during the dry season in June 2013 and during the wet season in March 2014) were conducted in the estuaries of the Lupar and Saribas rivers. Median N2O concentrations ranged between 7.2 and 12.3 nmol L−1 and were higher in the marine end-member (13.0 ± 7.0 nmol L−1). CH4 concentrations were low in the coastal ocean (3.6 ± 0.2 nmol L−1) and higher in the estuaries (medians between 10.6 and 64.0 nmol L−1). The respiration of abundant organic matter and presumably anthropogenic input caused slight eutrophication, which did not lead to hypoxia or enhanced N2O concentrations, however. Generally, N2O concentrations were not related to dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Thus, the use of an emission factor for the calculation of N2O emissions from the inorganic nitrogen load leads to an overestimation of the flux from the Lupar and Saribas estuaries. N2O was negatively correlated with salinity during the dry season, which suggests a riverine source. In contrast, N2O concentrations during the wet season were not correlated with salinity but locally enhanced within the estuaries, implying that there were additional estuarine sources during the wet (i.e., monsoon) season. Estuarine CH4 distributions were not driven by freshwater input but rather by tidal variations. Both N2O and CH4 concentrations were more variable during the wet season. We infer that the wet season dominates the variability of the N2O and CH4 concentrations and subsequent emissions from tropical estuaries. Thus, we speculate that any changes in the Southeast Asian monsoon system will lead to changes in the N2O and CH4 emissions from these systems. We also suggest that the ongoing cultivation of peat soil in Borneo is likely to increase N2O emissions from these estuaries, while the effect on CH4 remains uncertain.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: Consistent validation of satellite CO2 estimates is a prerequisite for using multiple satellite CO2measurements for joint flux inversion and establishing a long-term atmospheric CO2 data record. Wevalidate recent satellite observation of OCO-2 v7 and ACOS-GOSAT v7.3 using similar analysis as previouswork (Kulawik et al. (2016) and Frankenberg et al. (2106)) through comparisons to the HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations (HIPPO) and the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) to estimate biasesand errors affecting the understanding of carbon cycle science. CarbonTracker RT is also compared tothe validation data, and additionally used to evaluate the mismatch between the HIPPO observationtimeframe and the OCO-2 record, which are offset by 3-7 years. Some key metrics that are validatedinclude the seasonal cycle phase and amplitude, latitudinal gradient by season, regional biases, anderrors with respect to averaging.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing
    Type: ARC-E-DAA-TN42403 , International Workshop on Greenhouse Gas Measurements from Space (IWGGMS); Jun 06, 2017 - Jun 08, 2017; Helsinki; Finland
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 3
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    In:  Supplement to: Buschmann, Matthias; Deutscher, Nicholas M; Palm, Mathias; Warneke, Thorsten; Weinzierl, Tine; Notholt, Justus (2017): The arctic seasonal cycle of total column CO2 and CH4 from ground-based solar and lunar FTIR absorption spectrometry. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques Discussions, 10, 2397-2411, https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-10-2397-2017
    Publication Date: 2020-02-22
    Description: At the Ny-Ålesund TCCON site, solar and lunar Fourier-Transform InfraRed (FTIR) absorption spectroscopy is performed to retrieve the column averaged dry-air mole fractions of various trace gases. In this data set, daily averages of the TCCON solar absorption measurements and nightly averages of lunar absorption measurements of xCO2 and xCH4 are provided. As an indication of the error of the measurement, the standard deviation of the daily mean and the number of contributing measurements are presented as well.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 2037 data points
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-04-11
    Description: Methane ( CH 4 ) is a potent greenhouse gas with a large temporal variability. To increase the spatial coverage, methane observations are increasingly made from satellites that retrieve the column-averaged dry air mole fraction of methane ( XCH 4 ). To understand and quantify the spatial differences of the seasonal cycle and trend of XCH 4 in more detail, and to ultimately help reduce uncertainties in methane emissions and sinks, we evaluated and analyzed the average XCH 4 seasonal cycle and trend from three Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) retrieval algorithms: National Institute for Environmental Studies algorithm version 02.75, RemoTeC CH 4 Proxy algorithm version 2.3.8 and RemoTeC CH 4 Full Physics algorithm version 2.3.8. Evaluations were made against the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) retrievals at 15 TCCON sites for 2009–2015, and the analysis was performed, in addition to the TCCON sites, at 31 latitude bands between latitudes 44.43 ∘ S and 53.13 ∘ N. At latitude bands, we also compared the trend of GOSAT XCH 4 retrievals to the NOAA’s Marine Boundary Layer reference data. The average seasonal cycle and the non-linear trend were, for the first time for methane, modeled with a dynamic regression method called Dynamic Linear Model that quantifies the trend and the seasonal cycle, and provides reliable uncertainties for the parameters. Our results show that, if the number of co-located soundings is sufficiently large throughout the year, the seasonal cycle and trend of the three GOSAT retrievals agree well, mostly within the uncertainty ranges, with the TCCON retrievals. Especially estimates of the maximum day of XCH 4 agree well, both between the GOSAT and TCCON retrievals, and between the three GOSAT retrievals at the latitude bands. In our analysis, we showed that there are large spatial differences in the trend and seasonal cycle of XCH 4 . These differences are linked to the regional CH 4 sources and sinks, and call for further research.
    Electronic ISSN: 2072-4292
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
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  • 5
  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-04-26
    Description: Estuaries are sources of nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. However, our present knowledge of N2O and CH4 emissions from estuaries in the tropics is very limited because data are scarce. In this study, we present first measurements of dissolved N2O and CH4 from two estuaries in a peat-dominated region of northwestern Borneo. Two campaigns (during the dry season in June 2013 and during the wet season in March 2014) were conducted in the estuaries of the Lupar and Saribas rivers. Median N2O concentrations ranged between 7.2 and 12.3nmolL−1 and were higher in the marine end-member (13.0±7.0nmolL−1). CH4 concentrations were low in the coastal ocean (3.6±0.2nmolL−1) and higher in the estuaries (medians between 10.6 and 64.0nmolL−1). The respiration of abundant organic matter and presumably anthropogenic input caused slight eutrophication, which did not lead to hypoxia or enhanced N2O concentrations, however. Generally, N2O concentrations were not related to dissolved inorganic nitrogen concentrations. Thus, the use of an emission factor for the calculation of N2O emissions from the inorganic nitrogen load leads to an overestimation of the flux from the Lupar and Saribas estuaries. N2O was negatively correlated with salinity during the dry season, which suggests a riverine source. In contrast, N2O concentrations during the wet season were not correlated with salinity but locally enhanced within the estuaries, implying that there were additional estuarine sources during the wet (i.e., monsoon) season. Estuarine CH4 distributions were not driven by freshwater input but rather by tidal variations. Both N2O and CH4 concentrations were more variable during the wet season. We infer that the wet season dominates the variability of the N2O and CH4 concentrations and subsequent emissions from tropical estuaries. Thus, we speculate that any changes in the Southeast Asian monsoon system will lead to changes in the N2O and CH4 emissions from these systems. We also suggest that the ongoing cultivation of peat soil in Borneo is likely to increase N2O emissions from these estuaries, while the effect on CH4 remains uncertain.
    Print ISSN: 1726-4170
    Electronic ISSN: 1726-4189
    Topics: Biology , Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-28
    Description: The distribution of methane (CH4) in the stratosphere can be a major driver of spatial variability in the dry-air column-averaged CH4 mixing ratio (XCH4), which is being measured increasingly for the assessment of CH4 surface emissions. Chemistry-transport models (CTMs) therefore need to simulate the tropospheric and stratospheric fractional columns of XCH4 accurately for estimating surface emissions from XCH4. Simulations from three CTMs are tested against XCH4 observations from the Total Carbon Column Network (TCCON). We analyze how the model–TCCON agreement in XCH4 depends on the model representation of stratospheric CH4 distributions. Model equivalents of TCCON XCH4 are computed with stratospheric CH4 fields from both the model simulations and from satellite-based CH4 distributions from MIPAS (Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding) and MIPAS CH4 fields adjusted to ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer) observations. Using MIPAS-based stratospheric CH4 fields in place of model simulations improves the model–TCCON XCH4 agreement for all models. For the Atmospheric Chemistry Transport Model (ACTM) the average XCH4 bias is significantly reduced from 38.1 to 13.7ppb, whereas small improvements are found for the models TM5 (Transport Model, version 5; from 8.7 to 4.3ppb) and LMDz (Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique model with zooming capability; from 6.8 to 4.3ppb). Replacing model simulations with MIPAS stratospheric CH4 fields adjusted to ACE-FTS reduces the average XCH4 bias for ACTM (3.3ppb), but increases the average XCH4 bias for TM5 (10.8ppb) and LMDz (20.0ppb). These findings imply that model errors in simulating stratospheric CH4 contribute to model biases. Current satellite instruments cannot definitively measure stratospheric CH4 to sufficient accuracy to eliminate these biases. Applying transport diagnostics to the models indicates that model-to-model differences in the simulation of stratospheric transport, notably the age of stratospheric air, can largely explain the inter-model spread in stratospheric CH4 and, hence, its contribution to XCH4. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to analyze how individual model components (e.g., physical parameterization, meteorological data sets, model horizontal/vertical resolution) impact the simulation of stratospheric CH4 and XCH4.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-02-22
    Description: High-resolution solar absorption spectra, taken within the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change Infrared Working Group (NDACC-IRWG) in the mid-infrared spectral region, are used to infer partial or total column abundances of many gases. In this paper we present the retrieval of a column-averaged mole fraction of carbon dioxide from NDACC-IRWG spectra taken with a Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer at the site in Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. The retrieved time series is compared to colocated standard TCCON (Total Carbon Column Observing Network) measurements of column-averaged dry-air mole fractions of CO2 (denoted by xCO2). Comparing the NDACC and TCCON retrievals, we find that the sensitivity of the NDACC retrieval is lower in the troposphere (by a factor of 2) and higher in the stratosphere, compared to TCCON. Thus, the NDACC retrieval is less sensitive to tropospheric changes (e.g., the seasonal cycle) in the column average.
    Print ISSN: 1867-1381
    Electronic ISSN: 1867-8548
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-05-22
    Description: The equivalent length, a measure for mixing strength in the atmosphere, in meridional direction in the current application, is used here to investigate the causes of the atmospheric chemistry model (TM3, TM5-4DVAR and LMDz-PYVAR) biases in the stratosphere. Compared to measurements, we find that the modeled surf zone (a strongly stirred region caused by planetary wave breaking in mid-latitude stratosphere in the winter hemisphere), especially in the southern hemisphere, is not strong enough. We assume that this is due to an underestimation of the planetary wave breaking magnitude in the models. Consequently, the region with meridional uniform stratospheric CH4 concentrations has smaller latitudinal coverages in the models than the measurements, especially in the southern hemisphere between June and September. During the southern winter, a region with both vertically and horizontally well mixed CH4 concentrations occur between 450 and 850 K (~ 18 and 30 km) in surf zone latitudes. Such a region is absent in the models, and underestimations of CH4 concentrations within it are visible in comparisons with measured CH4 profiles. The modeled polar vortex breaks too fast and during the vortex period CH4 concentration differences across its barrier are underestimated compared to the measurements.
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-02-27
    Description: Climate change mitigation efforts require information on the current greenhouse gas atmospheric concentrations and their sources and sinks. Carbon dioxide (CO2) is the most abundant anthropogenic greenhouse gas. Its variability in the atmosphere is modulated by the synergy between weather and CO2 surface fluxes, often referred to as CO2 weather. It is interpreted with the help of global or regional numerical transport models, with horizontal resolutions ranging from a few hundreds of km to a few km. Changes in the model horizontal resolution affect not only atmospheric transport, but also the representation of topography and surface CO2 fluxes. This paper assesses the impact of horizontal resolution on the simulated atmospheric CO2 variability with a numerical weather prediction model. The simulations are performed using the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS) CO2 forecasting system at different resolutions from 9 km to 80 km and are evaluated using in situ atmospheric surface measurements and atmospheric column-mean observations of CO2, as well as radiosonde and SYNOP observations of the winds. The results indicate that both diurnal and day-to-day variability of atmospheric CO2 are generally better represented at high resolution, as shown by a reduction in the errors in simulated wind and CO2. Mountain stations display the largest improvements at high resolution as they directly benefit from the more realistic orography. In addition, the CO2 spatial gradients are generally improved with increasing resolution for both stations near the surface and those observing the total column, as the overall inter-station error is also reduced in magnitude. However, close to emission hotspots, the high resolution can also lead to a deterioration of the simulation skill, highlighting uncertainties in the high resolution fluxes that are more diffuse at lower resolutions. We conclude that increasing horizontal resolution matters for modelling CO2 weather because it has the potential to bring together improvements in the surface representation of both winds and CO2 fluxes, as well as an expected reduction in numerical errors of transport. Modelling applications like atmospheric inversion systems to estimate surface fluxes will only be able to benefit fully from upgrades in horizontal resolution if the topography, winds and prior flux distribution are also upgraded accordingly. It is clear from the results that an additional increase in resolution might reduce errors even further. However, the horizontal resolution sensitivity tests indicate that the change in the CO2 and wind modelling error with resolution is not linear, making it difficult to extrapolate the results beyond the tested resolutions. Finally, we show that the high resolution simulations are useful for the assessment of the small-scale variability of CO2 which cannot be represented in coarser resolution models. These representativeness errors need to be considered when assimilating in situ data and high resolution satellite data such as Greenhouse gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT), Orbiting Carbon Observatory-2 (OCO-2), the Chinese Carbon Dioxide Observation Satellite Mission (TanSat) and future missions such as the Geostationary Carbon Observatory (GeoCarb) and the Sentinel satellite constellation for CO2. For these reasons, the high resolution CO2 simulations provided by the CAMS in real-time can be useful to estimate such small-scale variability in real time, as well as providing boundary conditions for regional modelling studies and supporting field experiments.
    Electronic ISSN: 1680-7375
    Topics: Geosciences
    Published by Copernicus on behalf of European Geosciences Union (EGU).
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