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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1939
    Keywords: Parasitism ; Growth ; Survival ; Bufo ; Rhabdias
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The growth and survival of juvenile toads, Bufo bufo, infected with a common lung nematode, Rhabdias bufonis, were studied. Toads were raised from tadpoles in the laboratory and infected 2 months after metamorphosis. Individual toads were exposed to doses of 10, 40, 80 or 160 larvae, which enabled examination of the hypothesis that parasite-induced mortality is affected by worm numbers. Growth of infected toads began to diverge from that of uninfected controls at 6 weeks post infection (WPI) and by 12 WPI the most heavily infected toads were approximately half the mass of controls. No controls died throughout the experiment; however, mortality of infected toads was strongly affected by parasite density. A mechanism for mortality is suggested by the significant negative relationship between parasite density and dietary intake. This parasite-induced anorexia was detected at 3 WPI and persisted up to 9 WPI. Patterns of reduced host growth, survival and dietary intake provide experimental evidence of the negative consequences of parasitic infection in a natural parasite-host system which may also be present under natural conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-1561
    Keywords: Centaurea maculosa ; sesquiterpene lactone ; cnicin ; host-plant selection ; oviposition behavior ; antifeedant ; attractant ; Spodoptera littoralis ; Agapeta zoegana ; Stenodes straminea ; Pterolonche inspersa ; Lepidoptera ; Noctuidae ; Cochylidae ; Pterolonchidae
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Abstract The sesquiterpene lactone cnicin was extracted fromCentaurea maculosa andCentaurea vallesiaca. We examined its effects on the ovipositional response and larval development of generalist and specialist insect herbivores associated withC. maculosa. For the oviposition trials, three plant species (C. maculosa, Achillea millefolium, andCichorium intybus), half of which were sprayed with 3% of cnicin, were exposed to the specialist mothsStenodes straminea, Agapeta zoegana, andPterolonche inspersa in field cages. All three species significantly preferredC. maculosa to other plants andP. inspersa significantly preferred cnicin-sprayed plants to untreated plants for oviposition. Tested over all species, cnicin significantly increased the number of eggs laid on a given plant. A larval diet test examined the toxicity of cnicin for larvae of the generalist noctuid mothSpodoptera littoralis. Cnicin concentrations of 3% and 6% were lethal and 1% and 0.5% seriously inhibited growth and development. The larvae of theC. maculosa specialistStenodes straminea survived at 6% cnicin, but none of the pupae hatched.Agapeta zoegana was able to survive at 1% and 3% cnicin. Both specialists had difficulties with the artificial diet, but weight increase and survival was not further reduced when cnicin was present compared with on the control diet. In conclusion, cnicin influenced host recognition by the specialist species, and larvae of the generalist did not survive on natural levels of cnicin. Growth and survival of the specialist were not influenced by cnicin but were considerably hampered on artificial diet.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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