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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Geometric programming ; convex programming ; exponential geometric programming ; transcendental geometric programming
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Geometric programming is based on functions called posynomials, the terms of which are log-linear. This class of programs is extended from the composition of an exponential and a linear function to an exponential and a convex function. The resulting duality theory for composite geometric programs retains many of the qualities of geometric programming duality, while at the same time encompassing new areas of application. As an application, composite geometric programming is applied to exponential geometric programming. A pure dual is developed for the first time and used to solve a problem from the literature.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-4803
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract We studied the structural and optical properties of (Ba, Sr)TiO3 (BST) films deposited on the transparent substrates at various temperatures of 350–650°C and annealed at 450–650°C. Improved crystallization can be observed on 650°C annealed film whose substrate temperature is 350°C. The refractive index increased from 2.17 to 2.59 at λ = 410 nm for the BST films deposited at 350–650°C and it varied from 2.17 to 2.25 after annealing up to 650°C. In addition, the refractive-index dispersion data related to the short-range-order structure of BST films obeyed the single-oscillation energy model. The indirect energy gap of the films deposited on Al2O3 and quartz substrates was found to be about 3.5 eV. According to the analysis of reflectance data, the optical inhomogeneity of films can be reduced by depositing the films at intermediate temperatures 450–550°C.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1572-9559
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1572-9559
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-02-16
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: Key wordsOryza sativa L. ; Gene mapping ; Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) ; Host-pathogen co-evolution ; Stabilizing selection
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The genetic components responsible for qualitative and quantitative resistance of rice plants to three strains (CR4, CXO8, and CR6) of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) were investigated using a set of 315 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) from the cross Lemont (japonica) × Teqing (indica) and a complete linkage map with 182 well distributed RFLP markers. We mapped a major gene (Xa4) and ten quantitative trait loci (QTLs) which were largely responsible for segregation of the resistance phenotype in the RILs. The Teqing allele at the Xa4 locus, Xa4 T , acted as a dominant resistance gene against CR4 and CXO8. The breakdown of Xa4 T -associated resistance mediated by the mutant allele at the avrXa4 locus in the virulent strain CR6 results from significant changes in both gene action (lose of dominance) and the magnitude of gene effect (≈50% reduction). Nevertheless, Xa4 T still acted as a recessive QTL with a significant residual effect against CR6. The mutant alleles at the avrXa4 locus in CXO8 and CR6 that lead to a reduction in effect, or “breakdown”, of Xa4 T were apparently accompanied by corresponding penalties for their fitness. The quantitative component of resistance to Xoo in the RILs was largely due to a number of resistance QTLs. Most resistance QTLs mapped to genomic locations where major resistance genes and/or QTLs for resistance to Xoo, blast and sheath blight were identified in the same cross. Most QTLs showed consistent levels of resistance against all three Xoo strains. Our results suggest that a high level of durable resistance to Xoo may be achieved by the cumulative effects of multiple QTLs, including the residual effects of “defeated” major resistance genes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9559
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Conclusion We have presented a convenient method of measurements in adjusting the parameters for distributions of raindrop sizes and obtaining canting angles to accommodate to the local geographic and meteorologic conditions to get the required data for calculation of AR and XPD in the system planning of a short ground link using millimeter wave band. The measured results had been used in a theoretical formula to compute the XPD induced by rain in ground radio link of path length 2.2km and 35.3GHz with linear polarization, and discovered that the computed XPD agreed well with the measured XPD/6/. The agreement confirms that our methods of measurements are reliable and the measurements described above at one spot in the radio path are feasible in prediction of the AR and XPD for a short ground radio link. Of course, if the accuracy of the discriminating device were improved, it would have smaller errors in discrimination, and the results obtained would be more presise. The assistance of Y.Yan, T.S. Zhang and Y. Huang in making the measurements and calculations is gratefully acknowledged.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-9559
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-10-04
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-03-29
    Description: © The Author(s), 2015. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Earth System Science Data 7 (2015): 47-85, doi:10.5194/essd-7-47-2015.
    Description: Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and a methodology to quantify all major components of the global carbon budget, including their uncertainties, based on the combination of a range of data, algorithms, statistics, and model estimates and their interpretation by a broad scientific community. We discuss changes compared to previous estimates, consistency within and among components, alongside methodology and data limitations. CO2 emissions from fossil fuel combustion and cement production (EFF) are based on energy statistics and cement production data, respectively, while emissions from land-use change (ELUC), mainly deforestation, are based on combined evidence from land-cover-change data, fire activity associated with deforestation, and models. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration is measured directly and its rate of growth (GATM) is computed from the annual changes in concentration. The mean ocean CO2 sink (SOCEAN) is based on observations from the 1990s, while the annual anomalies and trends are estimated with ocean models. The variability in SOCEAN is evaluated with data products based on surveys of ocean CO2 measurements. The global residual terrestrial CO2 sink (SLAND) is estimated by the difference of the other terms of the global carbon budget and compared to results of independent dynamic global vegetation models forced by observed climate, CO2, and land-cover-change (some including nitrogen–carbon interactions). We compare the mean land and ocean fluxes and their variability to estimates from three atmospheric inverse methods for three broad latitude bands. All uncertainties are reported as ±1σ, reflecting the current capacity to characterise the annual estimates of each component of the global carbon budget. For the last decade available (2004–2013), EFF was 8.9 ± 0.4 GtC yr−1, ELUC 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM 4.3 ± 0.1 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN 2.6 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND 2.9 ± 0.8 GtC yr−1. For year 2013 alone, EFF grew to 9.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, 2.3% above 2012, continuing the growth trend in these emissions, ELUC was 0.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, GATM was 5.4 ± 0.2 GtC yr−1, SOCEAN was 2.9 ± 0.5 GtC yr−1, and SLAND was 2.5 ± 0.9 GtC yr−1. GATM was high in 2013, reflecting a steady increase in EFF and smaller and opposite changes between SOCEAN and SLAND compared to the past decade (2004–2013). The global atmospheric CO2 concentration reached 395.31 ± 0.10 ppm averaged over 2013. We estimate that EFF will increase by 2.5% (1.3–3.5%) to 10.1 ± 0.6 GtC in 2014 (37.0 ± 2.2 GtCO2 yr−1), 65% above emissions in 1990, based on projections of world gross domestic product and recent changes in the carbon intensity of the global economy. From this projection of EFF and assumed constant ELUC for 2014, cumulative emissions of CO2 will reach about 545 ± 55 GtC (2000 ± 200 GtCO2) for 1870–2014, about 75% from EFF and 25% from ELUC. This paper documents changes in the methods and data sets used in this new carbon budget compared with previous publications of this living data set (Le Quéré et al., 2013, 2014). All observations presented here can be downloaded from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (doi:10.3334/CDIAC/GCP_2014).
    Description: NERC provided funding to C. Le Quéré, R. Moriarty, and the GCP though their International Opportunities Fund specifically to support this publication (NE/103002X/1), and to U. Schuster through UKOARP (NE/H017046/1). G. P. Peters and R. M. Andrews were supported by the Norwegian Research Council (236296). T. A. Boden was supported by US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER) programmes under US Department of Energy contract DEAC05- 00OR22725. Y. Bozec was supported by Region Bretagne, CG29, and INSU (LEFE/MERMEX) for CARBORHONE cruises. J. G. Canadell and M. R. Raupach were supported by the Australian Climate Change Science Programme. M. Hoppema received ICOSD funding through the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) to the AWI (01 LK 1224I). J. I. House was supported by a Leverhulme Early Career Fellowship. A. K. Jain was supported by the US National Science Foundation (NSF AGS 12-43071) the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, and BER programmes (DOE DE-SC0006706) and the NASA LCLUC programme (NASA NNX14AD94G). E. Kato was supported by the Environment Research and Technology Development Fund (S-10) of the Ministry of Environment of Japan. C. Koven was supported by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Biological and Environmental Research, of the US Department of Energy under contract no. DE-AC02-05CH11231 as part of their Regional and Global Climate Modeling Program. I. D. Lima was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation (NSF AGS-1048827). N. Metzl was supported by Institut National des Sciences de l’Univers (INSU) and Institut Paul Emile Victor (IPEV) for OISO cruises. A. Olsen was supported by the Centre for Climate Dynamics at the Bjerknes Centre for Climate Research. J. E. Salisbury was supported by grants from NOAA/NASA. T. Steinhoff was supported by ICOS-D (BMBF FK 01LK1101C). B. D. Stocker was supported by the Swiss National Science Foundation and FP7 funding through project EMBRACE (282672). A. J. Sutton was supported by NOAA. T. Takahashi was supported by grants from NOAA and the Comer Education and Science Foundation. B. Tilbrook was supported by the Australian Department of the Environment and the Integrated Marine Observing System. A.Wiltshire was supported by the Joint UK DECC/Defra Met Office Hadley Centre Climate Programme (GA01101). P. Ciais,W. Peters, C. Le Quére, P. Regnier, and U. Schuster were supported by the EU FP7 through project GEOCarbon (283080). A. Arneth, P. Ciais, S. Sitch, and A. Wiltshire were supported by COMBINE (226520). V. Kitidis, M. Hoppema, N. Metzl, C. Le Quéré, U. Schuster, J. Schwiger, J. Segschneider, and T. Steinhoff were supported by the EU FP7 through project CARBOCHANGE (264879). A. Arnet, P. Friedlingstein, B. Poulter, and S. Sitch were supported by the EU FP7 through projects LUC4C (GA603542). P. Friedlingstein was also supported by EMBRACE (GA282672). F. Chevallier and G. R. van der Werf were supported by the EU FP7 through project MACC-II (283576).
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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