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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0495
    Keywords: Keywords China ; Geochemistry ; River ; Sediment ; Trace metals
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  A total of 26 geographically and hydrologically diverse sediment samples were collected from 12 major rivers in eastern China. The 〈63-μm fraction of the sediments was analysed for both total concentrations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd, and their associations with various geochemical phases. The geographical variations of sediment-bound trace metals can be related to the bedrock types and weathering processes in the corresponding river basins. The rivers in southern China had notably higher concentrations of trace metals in sediments because of abundant non-ferrous mineral deposits and stronger weathering process in the region. A large proportion of trace metals in these sediments was associated with iron and manganese oxides and organic matter. Relative low levels of trace metals were found in river sediments in northern China, and a significant proportion of the metals was bound to organic matter, carbonates, and the residual fraction. The sediments in the Yellow River, originating from special loess, had the lowest concentrations of trace metals. Most of the trace metals were associated with the carbonates and residual phases.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Archiv der Mathematik 75 (2000), S. 450-455 
    ISSN: 1420-8938
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract. By using a general lower bound formula of spectral gap, the lower bound estimate of the Dirichlet spectral gap is studied. The resulting estimates improve and recover known ones in the literature.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Cell-to-cell mapping ; coordinated robotic manipulators ; hierarchical searching algorithm ; optimal trajectory generation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract This paper presents the results obtained by applying the cell-to-cell mapping method to solve the problem of the time-optimal trajectory planning for coordinated multiple robotic arms handling a common object along a specified geometric path. Based on the structure of the time-optimal trajectory control law, the continuous dynamic model of multiple arms is first approximated by a discrete and finite cell-to-cell mapping on a two-dimensional cell space over a phase plane. The optimal trajectory and the corresponding control are then determined by using the cell-to-cell mapping and a simple search algorithm. To further improve the computational efficiency and to allow for parallel computation, a hierarchical search algorithm consisting of a multiple-variable optimization on the top level and a number of cell-to-cell searches on the bottom level is proposed and implemented in the paper. Besides its simplicity, another distinguishing feature of the cell-to-cell mapping methods is the generation of all optimal trajectories for a given final state and all possible initial states through a single searching process. For most of the existing trajectory planning methods, the planning process can be started only when both the initial and final states have been specified. The cell-to-cell method can be generalized to any optimal trajectory planning problem for a multiple robotic arms system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-2878
    Keywords: Cantilever beams ; flexible manipulators ; optimum design ; fundamental frequency ; successive iterations
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Notes: Abstract Optimum design of vibrating cantilevers is a classical problem widely used in the literature and textbooks in structural optimization. The problem, originally formulated and solved by Karihalloo and Niordson (Ref. 5), was to find the optimal beam shape that will maximize the fundamental vibration frequency of a cantilever. Upon reexamination of the problem, it has been found that the original analysis and solution procedure can be simplified and improved substantially. Specifically, the time-consuming inner loop devised for solving the Lagrange multiplier in the original work has been proved to be tolally unnecessary and thus should not be considered in the problem solution. This conclusion has led to a new set of simplified equations for the construction of iteration schemes. New asymptotic expressions for the optimum design solution have been obtained and verified by numerical results. Numerical analysis has shown a significant improvement in convergence rate by the proposed new procedure. Also some obvious numerical errors in the original paper have been identified and corrected.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Progress on a project for the development of a high-autonomy intelligent command and control architecture for process plants used to produce oxygen from local planetary resources is reported. A distributed command and control architecture is being developed and implemented so that an oxygen production plant, or other equipment, can be reliably commanded and controlled over an extended time period in a high-autonomy mode with high-level task-oriented teleoperation from one or several remote locations. During the reporting period, progress was made at all levels of the architecture. At the remote site, several remote observers can now participate in monitoring the plant. At the local site, a command and control center was introduced for increased flexibility, reliability, and robustness. The local control architecture was enhanced to control multiple tubes in parallel, and was refined for increased robustness. The simulation model was enhanced to full dynamics descriptions.
    Keywords: ENGINEERING (GENERAL)
    Type: NASA Space Engineering Research Center for Utilization of Local Planetary Resources; 20 p
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We explore high-redshift gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) as promising tools to probe pre-galactic metal enrichment. We utilize the bright afterglow of a Population III (Pop III) GRB exploding in a primordial dwarf galaxy as a luminous background source, and calculate the strength of metal absorption lines that are imprinted by the first heavy elements in the intergalactic medium (IGM). To derive the GRB absorption line diagnostics, we use an existing highly resolved simulation of the formation of a first galaxy which is characterized by the onset of atomic hydrogen cooling in a halo with virial temperature approximately greater than10(exp 4) K.We explore the unusual circumburst environment inside the systems that hosted Pop III stars, modeling the density evolution with the self-similar solution for a champagne flow. For minihalos close to the cooling threshold, the circumburst density is roughly proportional to (1 + z) with values of about a few cm(exp 3). In more massive halos, corresponding to the first galaxies, the density may be larger, n approximately greater than100 cm(exp 3). The resulting afterglow fluxes are weakly dependent on redshift at a fixed observed time, and may be detectable with the James Webb Space Telescope and Very Large Array in the near-IR and radio wavebands, respectively, out to redshift z approximately greater than 20. We predict that the maximum of the afterglow emission shifts from near-IR to millimeter bands with peak fluxes from mJy to Jy at different observed times. The metal absorption line signature is expected to be detectable in the near future. GRBs are ideal tools for probing the metal enrichment in the early IGM, due to their high luminosities and featureless power-law spectra. The metals in the first galaxies produced by the first supernova (SN) explosions are likely to reside in low-ionization stages (C II, O I, Si II and Fe II). We show that, if the afterglow can be observed sufficiently early, analysis of the metal lines may distinguish whether the first heavy elements were produced in a pair-instability supernova or a core-collapse (Type II) SN, thus constraining the initial mass function of the first stars.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN10154 , The Astrophysical Journal; 760; 1; 27
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The authors present a Petri net model of the coordination level of an intelligent mobile robot system (IMRS). The purpose of this model is to specify the integration of the individual efforts on path planning, supervisory motion control, and vision systems that are necessary for the autonomous operation of the mobile robot in a structured dynamic environment. This is achieved by analytically modeling the various units of the system as Petri net transducers and explicitly representing the task precedence and information dependence among them. The model can also be used to simulate the task processing and to evaluate the efficiency of operations and the responsibility of decisions in the coordination level of the IMRS. Some simulation results on the task processing and learning are presented.
    Keywords: CYBERNETICS
    Type: IEEE Conference on Decision and Control; Dec. 5-7, 1990; Honolulu, HI; United States
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: A study of noise benefit, vis-a-vis thrust penalty, and its correlation to turbulence intensities was conducted for free jets issuing from lobed nozzles. Four convergent nozzles with constant exit area were used in the experiments. Three of these were of rectangular lobed configuration having six, ten and fourteen lobes; the fourth was a circular nozzle. Increasing the number of lobes resulted in a progressive reduction in the turbulence intensities as well as in the overall radiated noise. The noise reduction was pronounced at the low frequency end of the spectrum. However, there was an increase in the high frequency noise that rendered the overall benefit less attractive when compared on a scaled-up A-weighted basis. A reduction in noise was accompanied by a commensurate reduction in the turbulent kinetic energy in the flow field. As expected, increasing the number of lobes involved progressive reduction in the thrust coefficient. Among the cases studied, the six-lobed nozzle had the optimum reduction in turbulence and noise with the least thrust penalty.
    Keywords: Aircraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: AIAA Paper 2002-0569 , 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; 14-17 Jan. 2002; Reno, NV; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: When requiring quantitative data on delta-wing vortices for design purposes, low-speed results have often been extrapolated to configurations intended for supersonic operation. This practice stems from a lack of database owing to difficulties that plague measurement techniques in high-speed flows. In the present paper an attempt is made to examine this practice by comparing quantitative data on the nearwake properties of such vortices in incompressible and supersonic flows. The incompressible flow data are obtained in experiments conducted in a low-speed wind tunnel. Detailed flow-field properties, including vorticity and turbulence characteristics, obtained by hot-wire and pressure probe surveys are documented. These data are compared, wherever possible, with available data from a past work for a Mach 2.49 flow for the same wing geometry and angles-of-attack. The results indicate that quantitative similarities exist in the distributions of total pressure and swirl velocity. However, the streamwise velocity of the core exhibits different trends. The axial flow characteristics of the vortices in the two regimes are examined, and a candidate theory is discussed.
    Keywords: Aerodynamics
    Type: AIAA Paper 2002-0557 , 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit; 14-17 Jan. 2002; Reno, NV; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-17
    Description: A model is proposed for the observed combination of power-law and thermal X-rays from rotationally powered pulsars. For gamma-ray pulsars with accelerators very many stellar radii above the neutron star surface, 100 MeV curvature gamma-rays from e(-) or e(+) flowing starward out of such accelerators are converted to e1 pairs on closed field lines all around the star. These pairs strongly affect X-ray emission from near the star in two ways. (1) The pairs are a source of synchrotron emission immediately following their creation in regions where B approx. 10(exp 10) G. This emission, in the photon energy range 0.1 keV less than E(sub X) less than 5 MeV, has a power-law spectrum with energy index 0.5 and X-ray luminosity that depends on the back-flow current, and is typically approx. 10(exp 33) ergs/ s. (2) The pairs ultimately a cyclotron resonance "blanket" surrounding the star except for two holes along the open field line bundles which pass through it. In such a blanket the gravitational pull on e(+,-) pairs toward the star is balanced by the hugely amplified push of outflowing surface emitted X-rays wherever cyclotron resonance occurs. Because of it the neutron star is surrounded by a leaky "hohlraum" of hot blackbody radiation with two small holes, which prevents direct X-ray observation of a heated polar cap of a gamma-ray pulsar. Weakly spin modulated radiation from the blanket together with more strongly spin-modulated radiation from the holes through it would then dominate observed low energy (0.1-10 keV) emission. For non-y-ray pulsars, in which no such accelerators with their accompanying extreme relativistic back-flow toward the star are expected, optically thick e1 resonance blankets should not form (except in special cases very close to the open field line bundle). From such pulsars blackbody radiation from both the warm stellar surface and the heated polar caps should be directly observable. In these pulsars, details of the surface magnetic field evolution, especially of polar cap areas, become relevant to observations. The models are compared to X-ray data from Geminga, PSR 1055-52, PSR 0656+14, PSR 1929+10, and PSR 0950+08.
    Keywords: Space Radiation
    Type: The New X-Ray/Gamma-Ray Pulsars; 8-9; CAL-3332
    Format: text
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