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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-8248
    Keywords: Parasitoids ; host-feeding ; nectar ; pollen ; honeydew ; parasitoïde ; adulte ; régime alimentaire
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Malgré l'importance potentielle de la nutrition des adultes dans l'écologie des parasitoïdes, les connaissances relatives à la gamme d'aliments naturels qu'ils exploitent restent limitées à un petit nombre d'espèces. Nous donnons ici quelques indications simples pour déterminer l'étendue du régime alimentaire chez les parasitoïdes adultes, pour faciliter et en même temps encourager une recherche ultérieure sur cet aspect de la biologie des parasitoïdes.
    Notes: Abstract Despite the potential importance of adult nutrition in the ecology of parasitoids, information on the range of natural foods they exploit is confined to a relatively small number of species. We provide some simple guidelines for determining dietary range in adult parasitoids, both to facilitate and to encourage further research into this aspect of parasitoid biology.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-136X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The γ-glutamyl cycle is considered to function in the membrane transport of amino acids, particularly glutamine and cysteine. When groups of Atlantic salmon were fed either a control diet containing 45% crude protein or an amino acid diet (of similar overall amino acid composition but containing elevated levels of glutamine and cysteine) for 16 weeks, weight gains were significantly greater in the former group than in those given the amino acid diet. There were no significant differences between treatments in γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (GT) activity in the proximal intestine; in distal intestine there was significantly more activity in control fish. Mean levels of GSH were higher in tissues (pyloric caeca, distal intestine and kidney) of amino acid diet fish than in those of control fish. Glutamine was less effective as a γ-glutamyl acceptor than several other amino acids when tested with salmon caecal GT. There were no morphological adaptations to the two feeds. Nutrient uptake studies showed an increased uptake of glutamine, but decreased uptakes of proline and methionine in proximal intestine of salmon fed amino acid diet. Much the greater part of the glutamine uptake, even at high concentrations was shown to be by Na+ dependent processes. There is no evidence that GT itself is Na+ dependent. The results do not support the view that the γ-glutamyl cycle and GT in particular are involved in the transport of amino acids in the intestine and are discussed in this context.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Description / Table of Contents: Abstract The Precambrian geology of the Adirondack highlands was previously interpreted as a sedimentary terrane repeatedly invaded during the Grenville orogenic cycle by igneous intrusions to form successively the large anorthosite massif and satellites, numerous olivine gabbro and dolerite bodies, gneisses of the quartz-syenite and charnockite series, and granites. A reinterpretation is suggested. In two representative areas major bodies of anorthosite and gneisses of the quartz-syenite and charnockite series are shown to occupy cores of mantled domes and nappes. They are parts of an older basement complex formed during an earlier, pre-Grenville orogenic cycle. Most of the now-recognizable “Grenville metasediments” were supracrustal rocks deposited on the denuded surface of this basement terrane. Olivine-basaltic magma invaded both the basement and the supracrustal rocks, forming gabbro and ophitic dolerite bodies. The Grenville orogenic cycle (ca. 1100 m.y. B.P.) deformed and metamorphosed all these rocks to a complex of mantled domes, folds, and nappes. The geology of the older basement rocks is heavily masked by the Grenville orogeny. The pre-Grenville basement consists of relatively homogenous masses of metaanorthosite, metanorite, charnockite, and gneisses of granitic composition. The supracrustal rocks occur in well-defined stratigraphic sequences of varied metasediments, gneisses, and charnockites. Conglomerates, arkoses, and acidic volcanics may all metamorphose to foliated rocks of granitic composition. Charnockites formed by high-grade metamorphism of initially dry, pre-existing quartzofeldspathic rocks including metamorphic and plutonic igneous rocks in the basement complex and acidic volcanics in the supracrustal sequence. Water content of rocks also controlled the extent of magmatism during the Grenville orogenic period. Anatectic granite is mainly limited to small, nebulite-bordered granite bodies, and to the presence of venitic migmatites in metamorphosed rocks with granitic components.
    Abstract: Résumé L'interprétation géologique Précambrienne des plateaux de l'Adirondack était considérée jusqu'à ce jour comme un terrain sédimentaire envahi à plusieurs reprises pendant le cycle orogénique de Grenville par des intrusions ignées pour former successivement le grand massif anorthosite et ses satellites, de nombreux corps gabbro-olivines et dolérites, des gneiss de séries quartzsyénites et charnockites, et des granites. Nous suggérons une réinterprétation. Dans deux domaines représentatifs, les corps principaux d'anorthosite et les gneiss de séries quartz-syénite et charnockite se révèlent comme occupant les noyaux de dômes recouvertes et de nappes. Ce sont des parties d'un fond complexe plus ancien formé pendant un cycle orogénique pré-Grenville antérieur. La plupart des «métasédiments Grenville» maintenant reconnaissables étaient des roches sédimentaires et volcaniques, déposées sur la surface dénudée de ce terrain de fond. Le magma olivine-basaltique a envahi à la fois le fond et les roches sédimentaires et volcaniques, formant du gabbro et des corps ophitiques et dolérites. Le cycle orogénique de Grenville (ca. 1100 m. y. B. P.) a déformé et métamorphosé toutes ces roches en une completié de dômes recouvertes, de plis et de nappes. La géologie des roches de fond plus anciennes est lourdement masquée par l'orogénie de Grenville. Le fond pré-Grenville consiste en masses relativement homogènes de métaanorthosite, métanorite, charnockite et en gneiss de composition granitique. Les roches sédimentaires et volcaniques apparaissent en séries stratigraphiques bien définie d'une variété de métasédiments, de gneiss et de charnockite. Des conglomérates, des arkoses et des roches volcaniques acides peuvent toutes se métamorphoser en roches foliacées de composition granitique. Des charnockites ont dû leur formation à un métamorphisme à haut degré de roches quartzofeldspathiques pré-existantes, initialement sèches, y compris les roches ignées métamorphiques et plutoniques dans le système du fond et acidovolcaniques dans la roche sédimentaire et volcanique subséquente. Le contenu aqueux des roches contrôlait également l'importance du magmatisme pendant la période orogénique de Grenville. Le granite anatectique se réduit principalement à des corpuscules granitiques bordés de nébulite et à la présence de migmatites vénétiques dans des roches métamorphosées aux composants granitiques.
    Notes: Zusammenfassung Die Gesteinsserien des Präkambriums in den Adirondack-Highlands wurde früher als Sedimente gedeutet, in welche während des Grenville-Orogenzyklus mehrfach Eruptiv-Intrusionen eindrangen. Dadurch sollen nacheinander das große Anorthosit-Massiv mit seinen Satelliten, zahlreiche Olivingabbro- und Dolerit-Körper, die Gneise der Quarz-Syenit- und Charnockit-Serie und die Granite entstanden sein. Eine andere Erklärung wird hier vorgeschlagen. In zwei typischen Gebieten werden größere Körper von Anorthosit und von Gneisen der Quarz-Syenit- und Charnockit-Serie beschrieben, welche die Kerne der ummantelten Gneisdome und der Decken einnehmen. Sie sind Teile eines älteren Grundgebirges, das in einem früheren Prä-Grenville-Zyklus entstanden ist. Die meisten der heute bekannten „Grenville metasediments“ bestanden aus suprakrustalen Gesteinen, die auf der heute abgetragenen Oberfläche dieses Grundgebirges abgelagert wurden. Olivin-basaltisches Magma drang sowohl in das Grundgebirge als auch in die suprakrustalen Gesteine ein, wodurch Gabbro- und ophitische Doleritkörper entstanden. Der Grenville-Orogenzyklus (vor etwa 1,1×109 Jahren) metamorphisierte diese Gesteine zu dem Komplex der ummantelten Gneisdome, Falten und Decken. Die Geologie des älteren Grundgebirges ist durch die Grenville-Orogenese stark verändert worden. Das Prä-Grenville-Grundgebirge besteht aus verhältnismäßig homogenen Meta-Anorthositen, Metanoriten, Charnockiten und Gneisen mit granitischer Zusammensetzung. Die suprakrustalen Gesteine kommen in gut bestimmten, stratigraphischen Abfolgen von verschiedenen Metasedimenten, Gneisen und Charnockiten vor. Konglomerate, Arkosen und saure Vulkanite dürften durch Metamorphose in geschieferte Gesteine granitischer Zusammensetzung übergegangen sein. Charnockite entstanden durch intensive Metamorphose der anfangs trockenen, vormals quarz- und feldspatreichen Gesteine, welche Metamorphite und Plutonite des Grundgebirges und saure Vulkanite der suprakrustalen Serie einschließen. Auch der Wassergehalt der Gesteine beeinflußte den Grad des Magmatismus während des Grenville-Orogenzyklus. Anatektischer Granit ist hauptsächlich an kleine, von Nebulit umgebene Granit-Körper und an die Anwesenheit von Venit-Migmatiten in metamorphen Gesteinen granitischer Zusammensetzung gebunden.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5168
    Keywords: rainbow trout ; dietary requirements ; tryptophan ; lysine ; arginine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Three separate studies were performed to determine the dietary requirements of rainbow troutSalmo gairdneri for tryptophan (Trp), lysine (Lys) and arginine (Arg) from both growth and biochemical data. The growth studies were carried out over a 12 week period. From graphical plots of % mean weight gain against % amino acid in diet the following requirement values were obtained, Trp 0.25% diet (0.4% dietary crude protein); Lys 1.9% diet (4.3% dietary protein); and Arg 1.6–1.8% diet (3.6–4% dietary protein). Plasma and liver amino acid concentrations measured 20h after feeding did not prove useful for determination of requirement values. Hepatic activities of Trp pyrrolase (TP), Lys α ketoglutarate reductase (LKGR) and arginase were not significantly affected by varying levels of Trp, Lys and Arg respectively in the diet. TP has a cytosolic location and a Km of 0.2 mM for Trp; LKGR is mitochondrial and the Km for Lys is 7.3 mM; arginase is also mitochondrial and has a Km of 4.9 mM for arginine. Measurements of expired14CO2, after injection of a tracer dose of14C amino acid, did allow estimates of requirement levels to be made. The values obtained from the oxidation studies reinforced the values obtained from the growth data but were not precise enough to justify using this method on its own.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-0530
    Keywords: 81-XX
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We present a general scheme for describing $$\widehat{su}$$ (N) k fusion rules in terms of elementary couplings, using Berenstein-Zelevinsky triangles. A fusion coupling is characterized by its corresponding tensor product coupling (i.e. its Berenstein-Zelevinsky triangle) and the threshold level at which it first appears. We show that a closed expression for this threshold level is encoded in the Berenstein-Zelevinsky triangle and an explicit method to calculate it is presented. In this way, a complete solution of $$\widehat{su}$$ (4) k fusion rules is obtained.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1570-7458
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé L'électrophorèse sur gel de polyacrylamide a servi à déterminer l'importance du parasitisme de populations naturelles de S. avenae F. Des clés électrophorétiques, préparées à partir de parasitoïdes élevés au laboratoire, ont été utilisées pour identifier les parasitoïdes provenant des pucerons récoltés dans la nature. Ainsi ont été décelés les parasites primaires: Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stefani Perez, A. ervi Haliday, A. picipes Nees, Praon volucre Haliday, Ephedrus plagiator Nees et Aphelinus abdominalis Dalman. Quelques bandes non-identifiées devraient être attribuées à des hyperparasitoïdes. L'électrophorèse a été comparée aux techniques d'échantillonnage plus conventionnelles de décompte des momies et d'élevage des individus vivants utilisées pour estimer le taux de parasitisme. L'électrophorèse et les méthodes d'élevage donnent généralement des résultats semblables pour les 2 niveaux de parasitisme et la composition en espèces de parasitoïdes, tandis que le décompte des momies tend à donner des résultats inférieurs.
    Notes: Abstract Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to monitor levels of parasitism in field populations of the cereal aphid, Sitobion avenae (F.) (Hemiptera: Aphididae). Electrophoretic keys previously prepared from laboratory-reared parasitoids were used to identify parasitoids within field-collected aphids. Using this approach, the primary parasitoids Aphidius rhopalosiphi De Stefani Perez, Aphidius ervi (Haliday), Aphidius picipes (Nees), Praon volucre Haliday, Ephedrus plagiator Nees and Aphelinus abdominalis Dalman were detected. Some unidentified banding patterns were also obtained, most of which were probably attributable to the presence of hyperparasitoids. Electrophoresis was compared with the more conventional sampling techniques of live-rearing and mummy counts as a means of estimating percentage parasitism. Electrophoresis was found to be a much quicker method than live-rearing and gave similar results for both levels of parasitism and parasitoid species composition, whereas mummy counts tended to give lower estimates than the other two methods.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0005-2760
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Physics
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-5118
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-0916
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract We consider those two-dimensional rational conformal field theories (RCFTs) whose chiral algebras, when maximally extended, are isomorphic to the current algebra formed from some untwisted affine Lie algebra at fixed level. In this case the partition function is specified by an automorphism of the fusion ring and corresponding symmetry of the Kac-Peterson modular matrices. We classify all such partition functions when the underlying finite-dimensional Lie algebra is simple. This gives all possible spectra for this class of RCFTs. While accomplishing this, we also find the primary fields with second smallest quantum dimension.
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