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  • 1
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Due to concerns about energy purity and reduced beam current, the use of multiply charged ions to achieve higher effective ion energies with a fixed acceleration potential has not been common for implantation users in the semiconductor industry. Energy purity is compromised primarily by charge exchange in the implanter beamline, caused by neutral gas originating from the ion source extraction aperture. Beam current has been an issue, since traditional implanter ion sources, such as the Freeman source, produce very limited currents of multiply charged species. At low beam currents, the implanter is not economical to use, hence the lack of commercial use of multiply charged ion implantation. Ion sources that address these issues must also meet requirements for adequate source lifetime, simplicity of operation (for computer control) and maintenance, and low cost of ownership. This paper details beam energy purity and usable beam currents for a new medium current Bernas ion source as compared to a standard Freeman ion source. The results show significant performance improvements, while also increasing the ion source lifetime.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 61 (1990), S. 315-317 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A small multicusp ion source has been used to generate beams of nitrogen ions. To achieve a high percentage of N+ ions, the source was equipped with a magnetic filter and operated with a high N2 gas density. A nearly pure atomic nitrogen ion (N+) beam (98.5% N+, 1.5% N2+), suitable for implantation purposes, was produced. The operating characteristics of this source, including species mix, are presented.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: The small multicusp ion source developed at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) has been equipped with a low voltage ratio, single aperture extraction system. The influence of the potential of the plasma electrode and of a dipole filter field on the beam emittance are measured. A simple method to reduce hash is suggested. The aim of these investigations is to produce nitrogen ion beams with a high atomic ion fraction and a low emittance as required for a RFQ-accelerator, which will be built for ion implantation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 60 (1989), S. 531-538 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A small multicusp source has been developed to generate volume-produced H− ion beams in pulsed operation. To obtain high H− current densities (J−〉250 mA/cm2), this source requires relatively high gas pressure and high discharge power. Experiments have been conducted to improve the arc and gas efficiencies, the beam pulse shape, and the H− to electron ratio in the extracted beam by optimizing the filter magnetic field, the thickness and axial position of the extraction aperture in the plasma electrode, and by mixing xenon or other elements with hydrogen in the discharge. The biggest improvement is achieved by adding cesium to the source, resulting in a fivefold increase in the extractable H− current and a substantial drop in the e/H− ratio. In order to improve the lifetime of the cathode, both filament and coaxial type LaB6 cathodes have been developed and have been operated successfully in this H− source.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 57 (1986), S. 1531-1535 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A small microwave ion source has been fabricated from a quartz tube with one end enclosed by a two-grid accelerator. The source is also enclosed by a cavity operated at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. Microwave power as high as 500 W can be coupled to the source plasma. The source has been operated with different geometries and for various gases in a cw mode. For hydrogen, ion current density of 200 mA/cm2 with atomic species concentration as high as 80% has been extracted from the source. It has been demonstrated that low-energy oxygen ion beams can also be extracted from the source. Beam-energy spread has been measured to be less than 1 eV.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 51 (1987), S. 566-568 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Negative lithium ions, generated by volume processes, have been extracted from a small magnetically filtered multicusp ion source. Current densities of 1.9 mA/cm2 have been obtained with a discharge voltage of 40 V and a discharge current of 4 A.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Journal of Applied Physics 60 (1986), S. 3015-3017 
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: A small microwave ion source has been constructed to generate low-energy (5–10 eV) oxygen beams. The source is fabricated from a quartz tube and is enclosed by a microwave cavity. The source is operated without an external extraction voltage. Positive ions effuse from the source with energies equal to the plasma potential. The source has been operated in a cw mode producing an atomic oxygen ion fluence 〉1×1014 cm−2 s−1 with energies as low as 5.5 eV. The "self-extracted'' ion beam can be used to simulate the oxygen environment encountered in low earth orbits.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 63 (1992), S. 2562-2564 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: A new 2.45 GHz microwave ion source has been developed for high-current ion implantation. The source uses permanent magnets to generate the ECR magnetic field. This leads to a much simpler and more compact design than typical solenoidal field microwave sources. The strong magnetic field and high-microwave power density are used to achieve a 11B+ ion fraction of up to 30% in extracted boron beams. Previous work on microwave ion sources for ion implantation has ordinarily not dealt with performance or lifetime issues for boron operation, which are critical in evaluating the overall utility of an implanter ion source. This is due to the generally poor performance of microwave sources with boron, as well as the limited source lifetime. Details of the performance and lifetime characteristics of this source with BF3 are presented in this paper.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [S.l.] : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Review of Scientific Instruments 61 (1990), S. 1110-1116 
    ISSN: 1089-7623
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics , Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology
    Notes: Several techniques for suppressing the electrons before they form part of the extracted beam have been studied in a small multicusp H− source. It is found that some schemes reduce both the electron and the H− output currents. Other approaches, such as the installation of a collar at the extraction aperture, the addition of xenon or cesium to the hydrogen discharge, or the reduction of the source plasma potential, not only can reduce the electron current substantially, but bring about an enhancement in the extracted H− current.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1089-7550
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The effect on H− ion production by adding cesium or xenon to a hydrogen discharge, in a small magnetically filtered multicusp ion source, has been investigated. Addition of cesium vapor to the hydrogen discharge resulted in a factor of 16 increase in H− output relative to the uncesiated discharge for the same operating parameters. Likewise, the addition of xenon gas to a hydrogen discharge resulted in a factor of 2.7 increase in H− output over pure hydrogen operation at optimum H2 source pressure, while maintaining the same arc parameters. Operation of the source with the plasma electrode at optimum bias voltage was essential to obtain this result.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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