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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1017
    Keywords: Membrane ; Brownian dynamics simulation ; Electrostatics ; Debye-Hückel theory ; Diffusion ; Lateral distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Brownian dynamics simulations were performed to study the contribution of electric interactions between charged membrane components to their lateral distribution in a two-dimensional viscous liquid (bilayer lipid membrane). The electrostatic interaction potential was derived from an analytical solution of the linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation for point charges in an electrolyte solution — membrane — electrolyte solution system. Equilibrium as well as dynamic quantities were investigated. The lateral organization of membrane particles, modelled by mobile cylinders in a homogeneous membrane separating two electrolyte solutions was described by spatial distribution functions, diffusion coefficients and cluster statistics. Disorder, local order and crystal-like arrangements were observed as a function of the particle charge, the closest possible distances between the charges and the particle density. The simulations revealed that the system is very sensitive to the position of the charges with respect to the electrolyte solution — membrane interface. Electrostatic interactions of charges placed directly on the membrane surface were almost negligible, whereas deeper charges demonstrated pronounced interaction. Biologically relevant parameters corresponded at most to local and transient ordering. It was found that lateral electric forces can give rise to a preferred formation of clusters with an even number of constituents provided that the closest possible charge-charge distances are small. It is concluded that lateral electrostatic interactions can account for local particle aggregations, but their impact on the global arrangement and movement of membrane components is limited.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Organometallics 10 (1991), S. 1317-1319 
    ISSN: 1520-6041
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1600-5767
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: A Monte Carlo type reconstruction algorithm (Saxs3D) to yield low-resolution three-dimensional structures from one-dimensional small-angle X-ray scattering data (SAXS) is presented. It is demonstrated that Saxs3D reliably reproduces the shape of several test protein structures, with their respective SAXS profiles calculated theoretically from their known high-resolution atomic coordinate sets. A reconstruction for experimentally obtained scattering data for GroEL, a molecular chaperone, correctly reproduced the gross structural features of GroEL. Compared to other reconstruction methods described in the literature, Saxs3D has the advantage of allowing for any topology of the target structure, does not require any prior estimation of its dimensions, is fast and conceptually very simple.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Copenhagen : International Union of Crystallography (IUCr)
    Acta crystallographica 55 (1999), S. 506-517 
    ISSN: 1399-0047
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Frequency distributions of protein backbone dihedral angles φ and ψ have been analyzed systematically for their apparent correlation with various crystallographic parameters, including the resolution at which the protein structures had been determined, the R factor and the free R factor, and the results have been displayed in novel differential Ramachandran maps. With improved sensitivity compared with conventionally derived heuristic Ramachandran maps, such differential maps automatically reveal conformational `attractors' to which φ/ψ distributions converge as the crystallographic resolution improves, as well as conformations tied specifically to low-resolution structures. In particular, backbone angular combinations associated with residues in α-helical conformation show a pronounced consolidation with substantially narrowed φ/ψ distributions at higher (better) resolution. Convergence to distinct conformational attractors was also observed for all other secondary-structural types and random-coil conformations. Similar resolution-dependent φ/ψ evolutions were obtained for different crystallographic refinement packages, documenting the absence of any significant artificial biases in the refinement programs investigated here. A comparison of differential Ramachandran maps derived for the R factor and the free R factor as independent parameters proved the better suitability of the free R factor for structure-quality assessment. The resolution-based differential Ramachandran map is available as a reference for comparison with actual protein structural data under WebMol, a Java-based structure viewing and analysis program (http://www.cmpharm.ucsf.edu/cgi-bin/webmol.pl).
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1434-1948
    Keywords: Carbon dioxide fixation ; Magnesium ; N ligands ; C-C coupling ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: The reaction of oxalic amidines R1-N=C(NHR2)-C(NHR2)=N-R1 with CH3MgX followed by uptake of CO2 results in the formation of the trimeric carbamato complexes [R1-N=C(NR2-COO)-C(NR2COO)=N-R1]3Mg3(THF)6 (2a: R1 = R2 = Ph; 2b: R1 = R2 = p-tolyl) as the thermodynamically stable final products of the reaction. Their X-ray crystal structures show that the three metal centres are in a linear arrangement. The central magnesium ion is octahedrally surrounded by six O-donor atoms of the μ2-carbamato bridges, while both peripheral magnesium ions are facially coordinated by three O-donor atoms of the carbamato groups and three THF molecules. This coordination sphere can be considered as a structural model for the active centre in the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase enzyme. Compound 2a reacts with ZnCl2 or CoBr2, with CO2 elimination, to form dimeric complexes of the type [X2M(oxalamidinato)MX2][Mg(DMF)6] (M = Zn, Co; X = Cl, Br). X-ray crystal structure analyses show that the d-metals are tetrahedrally coordinated. The magnesium-bromide-containing intermediates in the formation of 2a and 2b are able to transfer CO2 to acetophenone, thus simulating the CO2 activation step in enzymatic biotin-dependent carboxylation reactions.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0570-0833
    Keywords: Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0044-8249
    Keywords: Alkinkomplexe ; Nickelverbindungen ; Oligomere ; Chemistry ; General Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 2 Ill.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Nickel(0) ; binuclear compounds ; functionalized alkynes ; supramolecular structures ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Binuclear Nickel(0) Alkyne Coordination Compounds - Correlation between Ligand Periphery and Supramolecular StructureReaction of Ni(cdt: 1,5,9-cyclododecatriene) with functionalized alkynes and subsequent reaction with ethylenediamines gives binuclear compounds of the type (diamine)Ni(μ-alkyne)Ni(alkyne). Compounds with alkyne-diols (N⁁N)Ni2(HOR1R2C—C≡C—CR1R2OH)2 show supramolecular structures in which two identical intramolecular and one intermolecular hydrogen bonds are realized. 1 and 2 (chelate ligand in each case N,N,N′,N′-tetramethylethylenediamine, TMEDA, in 1 R1 = R2 = Me, in 2 R1 = R2 = Et) polymer-like chains are built up by connecting the binuclear units. Via two intermolecular hydrogen bonds per organometallic unit in 1 and via one intermoleculare hydrogen bond in 2 the chains are connected to give double chains. By substitution of one methyl group of TMEDA by hydrogen (3: R1 = R2 = Me) a polymerlike network is produced by connecting the polymer-like chains.In compound 4 in which one of the methyl groups of TMEDA is substituted by CH2CH2NMe2 the polymer-like chains remain unconnected. In 5 (diamine = TMEDA, alkyne = (CH3)3C—C≡C—CMe2OH) one intermolecular hydrogen bond per organometallic unit is observed forming again polymer-like chains that are independent of each other.
    Notes: Durch Reaktion von Ni(cdt) (cdt: Cyclododeca-1,5,9-trien) mit funktionalisierten Alkinen und anschließender Umsetzung mit Ethylendiaminen erhält man binucleare Alkin-Nickel(0)-Verbindungen des Typs (diamin)Ni(μ-alkin)Ni(alkin). In Verbindungen mit Alkindiolen (N ⁁ N)Ni2(HOR1R2C—C≡C—CR1R2OH)2 werden supramolekulare Strukturen aufgebaut, die jeweils zwei gleichartige intramolekulare und eine intermolekulare Wasserstoffbrückenbindung aufweisen. In 1 und 2 (Chelatligand jeweils N,N,N′,N′-Tetramethylethylendiamin, TMEDA, in 1 R1 = R2 = Me, in 2 R1 = R2 = Et) bilden sich durch Verknüpfung der binuklearen Einheiten polymere Stränge, die in 1 durch zwei und in 2 durch eine Wasserstoffbrückenbindung pro Organometalleinheit zu Doppelsträngen verknüpft werden. Ersatz einer Methylgruppe in TMEDA durch Wasserstoff (3: R1 = R2 = Me) bewirkt, daß die polymeren Stränge zu einem polymeren Netzwerk verknüpft werden. In Verbindung 4 (R1 = R2 = Me), in der im TMEDA eine Methylgruppe durch CH2CH2NMe2 ersetzt ist, bleiben die zu 1-3 analogen polymeren Stränge untereinander unverknüpft.In 5 (Diamin = TMEDA, Alkin = (CH3)3C—C≡C—CMe2OH) wird pro Organometalleinheit eine intermolekulare Wasserstoffbrückenbindung gebildet, was ebenfalls zu voneinander unabhängigen polymeren Strängen führt.
    Additional Material: 12 Ill.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Zirconium ; Lithium ; Hydroxoligands ; Oxoligand ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: An Unusual Trimeric Bimetallic Li—Zr Complex with the Backbone [Zr3(μ2-OH)3(μ3-O)Li5] by Reaction of Zirconiumorgano and Hydrido Complexes with WaterThe reaction of compounds of the type [(LZr)(LiH)(L′)]n and [(LZr)(LiH)(L′)(alkyne)]n (L: 2,2′-Biphenolato-dianion, L′: thf, Bu3P, alkyne: Ph—C≡C—SiMe3, CH≡CH) with water at 0°C in a thf solution results in the formation of th trimeric bimetallic complex 8 [(L2Zr)3(μ2-OH)3(μ3-O)Li5(thf)8(H2O)5] in 50% yield. The X-ray analysis of 8 shows that a planar six-membered ring Zr3(μ2-OH)3 is formed. In the middle of this ring is a dianionic oxygen atom placed, coordinating to the three L2Zr centres in a planar μ3-coordination (bond angles 120,05μ). Five lithium ions stabilize the anionic backbone by bridging the biphenolato chelate ligands, which form seven-membered chelate rings with the atoms.1H-, 13C-, and 7Li-NMR spectra exhibit that the solid state structure remains unchanged in solution (thf).
    Notes: Die Reaktion von Verbindungen des Typs [(LZr)(LiH)(L′)]n und [(LZr)(LiH)(L′)(alkin)]n (L: 2,2′-Biphenolato-dianion, L′: thf, Bu3P, alkin: Ph—C≡C—SiMe3, CH≡CH) mit Wasser führt bei 0°C in thf in 50% Ausbeute zum trimeren Bimetallkomplex 8 [(L2Zr)3(μ2-OH)3(μ3-O) Li5(thf)8(H2O)5]. Die Kristallstrukturanalyse von 8 zeigt, daß ein planarer Zr3(μ2-OH)3-Sechsring gebildet wird. In seiner Mitte ist ein dianionisches Sauerstoffatom fixiert, das an den drei L2Zr-Zentren mit planarer μ3-Koordination gebunden ist (Bindungswinkel Zr—O—Zr 120,05°). Fünf Lithiumionen stabilisieren das anionische Gerüst durch Verbrückung der Biphenolatchelatliganden, die mit den Zr-Atomen Chelatsiebenringe ausbilden. 1H-, 13C- und 7Li-NMR-Spektren zeigen, daß in Lösung (thf) die Festkörperstruktur unverändert erhalten bleibt.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0044-2313
    Keywords: Copper(I) ; 1-azadienes ; oxidation ; Chemistry ; Inorganic Chemistry
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Description / Table of Contents: Copper(I) Complexes with 1-Azadiene Chelate Ligands and Their Reaction with OxygenThe reaction of the bidendate 1-azadiene ligands Me2N—(CH2)n—N=CH—CH=CH—Ph with CuX results in the formation of the dimeric compounds [ACuX]2 and [BCuX]2 (A: n = 2, B: n = 3, X: I, Cl). The structure of complex 1 [ACuI]2 was determined by X-ray crystal structure analysis. 1 consists of two tetrahedrally coordinated Cu atoms connected by two iodo bridges. (Cu—Cu bond length: 261 pm).The ligand Me—N(CH2CH2N=CH—CH=CH—Ph)2 (C) reacts with CuX to form the monomeric complexes [CCuX] (5: X=I, 6: X=Cl). The crystal structure of 5 shows that the ligand acts as a tridendate ligand. The bond lengths of the CuN(sp2) bonds are significantly shorter than the Cu—N(sp3) distance.Reacting the podand-type ligands N(CH2CH2—N=CH—R)3 (D: R=Ph, E: R=-CH=CH—Ph) with CuX yields the ionic complexes 7 [DCu][CuCl2] and 8 [ECu][CuCl2]. 7 was characterized by X-ray analysis which confirmed that D acts as a four-dendate podand ligand.The compounds 1-8 are unreactive towards CO2 but take up O2 even at deep temperatures. At -78°C the orange-red complex 4 [BCuCl]2 reacts with O2 in CH2Cl2 to form a deep violet solution, but the primary product of the oxidation could not be isolated. It reacts at room temperature to form the green complex 9 [μ-Cl, μ-OH][BCuCl]2. The X-ray structure analysis of 9 confirms that a dimeric CuII complex is formed in which both a chloro- and a hydroxo group are bridging the monomeric units. The CuII centers exhibit a distorted tetragonal-pyramidal coordination.The pathway of the reaction with O2 will be discussed.
    Notes: Die Reaktion der zweizähligen 1-Azadienliganden Me2N—(CH2)n—N=CH—CH=CH—Ph mit CuX führt zu den dimeren Komplexen [ACuX]2 and [BCuX]2 (A: n = 2, B: n = 3, X: I, Cl). Die Struktur des Komplexes 1 [ACuI]2 wurde durch Kristallstrukturanalyse bestimmt. 1 enthält zwei tetraedrisch koordinierte Cu-Atome, die über zwei Iodobrücken miteinander verknüpft sind Cu—Cu-Bindungslänge: (261 pm).Der Ligand Me—N(CH2CH2N=CH—CH=CH—Ph)2 (C) reagiert mit CuX unter Bildung der monomeren Komplexe [CCuX] (5: X = I, 6: X=Cl). Die Kristallstruktur von 5 zeigt, daß der Ligand dreizählig koordiniert. Die Bindungslängen der Cu—N(sp2)-Bindungen sind signifikant kleiner als der Cu—N-(sp3)-Abstand.Die Reaktion der Podand-Liganden N(CH2CH2—N=CH—R)3 (D: R=Ph, E: R=-CH=CH—Ph) mit CuX führt zu den ionischen Komplexen 7 [DCu][CuCl2] bzw. 8 [ECu][CuCl2]. 7 wurde durch Röntgenstrukturanalyse charakterisiert, die ausweist, daß D als vierzähliger Ligand fungiert.Die Komplexe 1-8 sind gegenüber CO2 nicht reaktiv, nehmen aber O2 schon bei tiefen Temperaturen auf. Bei -78°C reagiert der orangerote Komplex 4 [BCuCl]2 mit O2 in CH2Cl2 zu einer tiefvioletten Lösung, das Primärprodukt der Oxidation konnte jedoch nicht isoliert werden. Es reagiert bei Raumtemperatur zu dem grünen Komplex 9 [μ-Cl, μ-OH][BCuCl]2. Die Kristallstrukturanalyse belegt, daß ein dimerer CuII-Komplex gebildet wird, in dem eine Chloro- und eine Hydroxobrücke die Monomereinheiten verbrücken. Die CuII-Zentren weisen eine verzerrt tetragonal-pyramidale Koordination auf.Der Reaktionsweg der Umsetzung mit O2 wird diskutiert.
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