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  • 1
    ISSN: 1573-9171
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Conclusions 1. The self-diffusion coefficients (SDCs) of water and methanol molecules, measured by the pulse-gradient NMR method, are independent of the time of observation A. The previously noted dependence of the SDC on A is explained by the large error of SDC measurements at short observation times. 2. The SDC of adsorbed water and methanol molecules increases with increasing size of the micropores. In activated carbons with a mean half-width of the micropores smaller than 0.66 nm, the SDC of adsorbed methanol at 298°K is lower than the SDC of water, but in activated carbon with larger pores, the SDC of methanol is higher than that of water.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Experimental mechanics 19 (1979), S. 309-316 
    ISSN: 1741-2765
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Notes: Abstract This work deals with limitations encountered in measuring the dynamic characteristics of structural systems. Structural loading and response are measured by transducers that are characterized by multiple resonant frequencies where peaks occur in the magnification factor of their transfer function. The transfer function of a transducer is the ratio of the Fourier transform of its output to the Fourier transform of the input causing that output. The magnification factor of the transfer function of a transducer is the factor by which its zero-frequency response must be multiplied to determine the magnitude of its steady-state response at any given frequency. The presence of multiple peaks in the transfer function of a transducer indicates a potential for problems when the transducer responds to a transient stimulus. The problem is more severe if the stimulus contains significant amplitude at frequencies near these peaks; distortion of the recorded signal will occur. If the transfer function of the transducer is completely characterized, data distortion can be corrected by an inverse treatment. This inverse problem consists of determining the corresponding excitation associated with a particular system model and a given response. Even though measurement difficulties encountered when using transducers with multiple resonant peaks are not generally solvable by an inverse treatment, procedures are described in this work which can be applied on a frequency-selective basis to acquire valid data.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    ISSN: 1618-2650
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5052
    Keywords: initial floristic ; relay floristics ; resource-competition ; succession
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract We surveyed vegetation along forest margins in a 65-year chronosequence of old-fields at the Cedar Creek Natural History Area in east-central Minnesota, USA, to identify successional patterns of woody plants and to determine if these were correlated with soil nitrogen. We predicted that shrub and tree abundance, size, and distance of occurrence from the forest edge would be correlated with field age or soil nitrogen. Instead we did not find successional trends in the abundance or composition of woody species. Even in the oldest field the abundance of trees and shrubs was low and concentrated in areas close to the forest. Though trees were larger and present further from the forest edges in older fields, average tree height was less than 126 cm in all fields. Since we did not find successional trends we looked at various local factors (local seed sources, deer browsing, and forest edge aspect) and their relation to recruitment, mortality, or growth to explain variation among fields in abundance of trees or shrubs. The three most common tree species (Quercus rubra, Q. macrocarpa,and Populus tremuloides) all had a higher relative abundance of seedlings, and two (Q. rubra and Q. macrocarpa) had a higher relative abundance of large trees adjacent to forests with a high abundance of conspecific adults. Most trees taller than 20 cm were browsed by deer and were shorter in 1995 than they were in 1993. Mortality was higher for trees less than 30 cm indicating that mortality was size-dependent. Forest edge aspect did not significantly influence the abundance or demography of any species. Our results suggest that the patterns of seedling recruitment were largely determined by the proximity of seed sources and that these patterns may persist so that tree communities in old-fields resemble adjacent forests. Deer may be a significant factor in the suppression of tree populations in old-fields through repeated browsing which reduces tree growth and elevates tree mortality by prolonging the period of time trees remain susceptible to size-dependent mortality.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary 1. White rats were intoxicated with fifty percent ethyl alcohol. Some received but single, others a series of intoxications. Tissues were prepared according toRegaud's method, as modified byKater. The water content of the livers was calculated. 2. The normal hepatic cells contained free, spherical mitochondria, and very little fat. After a single intoxication, within one hour, the chondriosomes tended to fuse and form beaded filaments; within two and a half hours, rod-shaped and filamentous chondriosomes predominated in number; after twelve hours, free spherical and beaded filamentous mitochondria appeared. 3. After a single intoxication, fat accumulated in the hepatic cells in two and a half hours, and increased after twelve hours. 4. The reactions of the hepatic cells to daily intoxication consisted in a change from free spherical mitochondria of the normal to free spheres of diminished size, or to filamentous chondriosomes. After daily intoxication, fat accumulation in the hepatic cells was abundant. 5. The water content of the liver was greatest in the normal and least in the liver of the daily intoxicated rats. Even rats that received but a single intoxication had a percentage of water in the liver less than in the normal. 6. It is concluded that the mitochondria of the liver cells may be utilized as indicators in response to alcoholic intoxication.
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Journal of economics 25 (1965), S. 422-428 
    ISSN: 1617-7134
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1617-7134
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Economics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-8477
    Keywords: compensatory growth ; dynamic models ; grazing tolerance ; herbivore optimization ; overcompensation ; plant antiherbivore strategies ; plant—herbivore mutualism
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary The increased growth rates, higher total biomass, and increased seed production occasionally found in grazed or clipped plants are more accurately interpreted as the results of growth at one end of a spectrum of normal plant regrowth patterns, rather than as overcompensation, herbivore-stimulated growth, plantherbivore mutualisms, or herbivore enhanced fitness. Plants experience injury from a wide variety of sources besides herbivory, including fire, wind, freezing, heat, and trampling; rapid regrowth may have been selected for by any one of the many types of physical disturbance or extreme conditions that damage plant tissues, or by a combination of all of them. Rapid plant regrowth is more likely to have evolved as a strategy to reduce the negative impacts of all types of damage than as a strategy to increase fitness following herbivory above ungrazed levels. There is no evolutionary justification and little evidence to support the idea that plant-herbivore mutualisms are likely to evolve. Neither life history theory nor recent theoretical models provide plausible explanations for the benefits of herbivory. Several assumptions underlie all discussions of the benefits of herbivory: that plant species are able to evolve a strategy of depending on herbivores to increase their productivity and fitness; that herbivores do not preferentially regraze the overcompensating plants; that resources will be sufficient for regrowth; and that being larger is always ‘better’ than being smaller. None of these assumptions is necessarily correct.
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