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  • 1
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Human intestinal in vitro organ culture was used to assess the tissue tropism of human isolates of Escherichia coli O103:H2 and O103:H- that express intimin ɛ. Both strains showed tropism for follicle associated epithelium and limited adhesion to other regions of the small and large intestine. This is similar to the tissue tropism shown by intimin γ enterohaemorrhagic (EHEC) O157:H7, but distinct from that of intimin α enteropathogenic (EPEC) O127:H6.
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 36 (2000), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Salmonella pathogenesis is a complex and multifactorial phenomenon. Many genes required for full virulence in mice have been identified, but only a few of these have been shown to be necessary for the induction of enteritis. Likewise, at least some of the Salmonella virulence factors affecting enteritis do not appear to be required for infection of systemic sites in mice. This suggests that subsets of virulence genes influence distinct aspects of Salmonella pathogenesis. Recently, considerable progress has been made in characterizing the virulence mechanisms influencing enteritis caused by non-typhoid Salmonella spp. The Salmonella pathogenicity island-1-encoded type III secretion system mediates the translocation of secreted effector proteins into target epithelial cells. These effector proteins are key virulence factors required for Salmonella intestinal invasion and the induction of fluid secretion and inflammatory responses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Signature-tagged mutagenesis (STM) is a widely used technique for identification of virulence genes in bacterial pathogens. While this approach often generates a large number of mutants with a potential reduction in virulence a major task is subsequently to determine the mechanism by which the mutations influence virulence. Presently, we have characterised a Salmonella enterica serovar Dublin STM mutant that, in addition to having reduced virulence, was also impaired when growing under various stress conditions. The mutation mapped to the manC (rfbM) gene of the O-antigen gene cluster involved in O-antigen synthesis. The O-antigen is a component of the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) forming a unique constituent of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. While mutations in the O-antigen genes usually eliminate the entire O-antigen side chain we found that the transposon mutant produced intact O-antigen, however, the mutation reduced the amount of LPS.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The severity of infections caused by Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium varies depending on the host species. Numerous virulence genes have been identified in S. Typhimurium, largely from studies in mice, but their roles in infections of other species remain unclear. In the most comprehensive survey of its kind, through the use of signature-tagged mutagenesis of S. Typhimurium we have identified mutants that were unable to colonize calf intestines, mutants unable to colonize chick intestines and mutants unable to colonize both species. The type three secretion systems encoded on Salmonella pathogenicity islands (SPIs) 1 and 2 were required for efficient colonization of cattle. However, disruption of these secretion systems only caused a minor defect in S. Typhimurium colonization of chicks. Transposon insertions in SPI-4 compromised S. Typhimurium colonization of cattle, but not chicks. This is the first data confirming a role for SPI-4 in pathogenesis. We have also been able to ascribe a role in colonization for cell surface polysaccharides, cell envelope proteins, and many ‘housekeeping’ genes and genes of unknown function. We conclude that S. Typhimurium uses different strategies to colonize calves and chicks. This has major implications for vaccine design.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Burkholderia pseudomallei is the causative agent of melioidosis, a serious infectious disease of humans and animals that is endemic in subtropical areas. B. pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular pathogen that may invade and survive within eukaryotic cells for prolonged periods. After internalization, the bacteria escape from endocytic vacuoles into the cytoplasm of infected cells and form membrane protrusions by inducing actin polymerization at one pole. It is believed that survival within phagocytic cells and cell-to-cell spread via actin protrusions is required for full virulence. We have studied the role of a putative type III protein secretion apparatus (Bsa) in the interaction between B. pseudomallei and host cells. The Bsa system is very similar to the Inv/Mxi-Spa type III secretion systems of Salmonella and Shigella. Moreover, B. pseudomallei encodes proteins that are very similar to Salmonella and Shigella Inv/Mxi-Spa secreted proteins required for invasion, escape from endocytic vacuoles, intercellular spread and pathogenesis. Antibodies to putative Bsa-secreted proteins were detected in convalescent serum from a melioidosis patient, suggesting that the system is functionally expressed in vivo. B. pseudomallei mutant strains lacking components of the Bsa secretion and translocation apparatus were constructed. The mutant strains exhibited reduced replication in J774.2 murine macrophage-like cells, an inability to escape from endocytic vacuoles and a complete absence of formation of membrane protrusions and actin tails. These findings indicate that the Bsa type III secretion system plays an essential role in modulating the intracellular behaviour of B. pseudomallei.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Copper/zinc-cofactored superoxide dismutase ([Cu,Zn]-SOD) has been found in the periplasm of many bacterial species but its biological function is unknown. Here we report the cloning and characterization of sodC, encoding [Cu,Zn]-SOD, from Salmonella typhimurium. The predicted protein sequence shows only 58% identity to Escherichia coli SodC, and from this its chromosomal location and its immediate proximity to a phage gene, sodC, in Salmonella is speculated to have been acquired by bacteriophage-mediated horizontal transfer from an unknown donor. A sodC mutant of S. typhimurium was unimpaired on aerobic growth in rich medium but showed enhanced sensitivity in vitro to the microbicidal action of superoxide. S. typhimurium, S. choleraesuis and S. dublin sodC mutants showed reduced lethality in a mouse model of oral infection and persisted in significantly lower numbers in livers and spleens after intraperitoneal infection, suggesting that [Cu,Zn]-SOD plays a role in pathogenicity, protecting Salmonella against oxygen radical-mediated host defences. There was, however, no observable difference compared with wild type in the interaction of sodC mutants with porcine pleural, mouse peritoneal or J774 macrophages in vitro, perhaps reflecting the hierarchical capacity of different macrophage lines to kill Salmonella, the most efficient overwhelming the proposed protective effect of periplasmic SOD.
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