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  • 1
    ISSN: 1520-5851
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2016-12-02
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 13 (2012): Q0AF07, doi:10.1029/2012GC004211.
    Description: The output of gas and tephra from volcanoes is an inherently disorganized process that makes reliable flux estimates challenging to obtain. Continuous monitoring of gas flux has been achieved in only a few instances at subaerial volcanoes, but never for submarine volcanoes. Here we use the first sustained (yearlong) hydroacoustic monitoring of an erupting submarine volcano (NW Rota-1, Mariana arc) to make calculations of explosive gas flux from a volcano into the ocean. Bursts of Strombolian explosive degassing at the volcano summit (520 m deep) occurred at 1–2 min intervals during the entire 12-month hydrophone record and commonly exhibited cyclic step-function changes between high and low intensity. Total gas flux calculated from the hydroacoustic record is 5.4 ± 0.6 Tg a−1, where the magmatic gases driving eruptions at NW Rota-1 are primarily H2O, SO2, and CO2. Instantaneous fluxes varied by a factor of ∼100 over the deployment. Using melt inclusion information to estimate the concentration of CO2 in the explosive gases as 6.9 ± 0.7 wt %, we calculate an annual CO2 eruption flux of 0.4 ± 0.1 Tg a−1. This result is within the range of measured CO2 fluxes at continuously erupting subaerial volcanoes, and represents ∼0.2–0.6% of the annual estimated output of CO2from all subaerial arc volcanoes, and ∼0.4–0.6% of the mid-ocean ridge flux. The multiyear eruptive history of NW Rota-1 demonstrates that submarine volcanoes can be significant and sustained sources of CO2 to the shallow ocean.
    Description: The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, the NOAA Vents Program, and the National Science Foundation (OCE-0751776) for support.
    Description: 2013-05-29
    Keywords: Gas flux ; Ocean acoustics ; Seafloor volcanism
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 5 (2004): Q08002, doi:10.1029/2004GC000712.
    Description: Detailed hydrothermal surveys over ridges with spreading rates of 50–150 mm/yr have found a linear relation between spreading rate and the spatial frequency of hydrothermal venting, but the validity of this relation at slow and ultraslow ridges is unproved. Here we compare hydrothermal plume surveys along three sections of the Gakkel Ridge (Arctic Ocean) and the Southwest Indian Ridge (SWIR) to determine if hydrothermal activity is similarly distributed among these ultraslow ridge sections and if these distributions follow the hypothesized linear trend derived from surveys along fast ridges. Along the Gakkel Ridge, most apparent vent sites occur on volcanic highs, and the extraordinarily weak vertical density gradient of the deep Arctic permits plumes to rise above the axial bathymetry. Individual plumes can thus be extensively dispersed along axis, to distances 〉200 km, and ∼75% of the total axial length surveyed is overlain by plumes. Detailed mapping of these plumes points to only 9–10 active sites in 850 km, however, yielding a site frequency F s , sites/100 km of ridge length, of 1.1–1.2. Plumes detected along the SWIR are considerably less extensive for two reasons: an apparent paucity of active vent fields on volcanic highs and a normal deep-ocean density gradient that prevents extended plume rise. Along a western SWIR section (10°–23°E) we identify 3–8 sites, so F s = 0.3–0.8; along a previously surveyed 440 km section of the eastern SWIR (58°–66°E), 6 sites yield F s = 1.3. Plotting spreading rate (us) versus F s, the ultraslow ridges and eight other ridge sections, spanning the global range of spreading rate, establish a robust linear trend (F s = 0.98 + 0.015us), implying that the long-term heat supply is the first-order control on the global distribution of hydrothermal activity. Normalizing F s to the delivery rate of basaltic magma suggests that ultraslow ridges are several times more efficient than faster-spreading ridges in supporting active vent fields. This increased efficiency could derive from some combination of three-dimensional magma focusing at volcanic centers, deep mining of heat from gabbroic intrusions and direct cooling of the upper mantle, and nonmagmatic heat supplied by exothermic serpentinization.
    Description: This research was partially supported the NOAA VENTS Program. P.J.M. and H.J.B.D. gratefully acknowledge NSF grant OPP 9911795 for support of the AMORE Expedition; P.J.M. and E.T.B. acknowledge NSF grant OPP 0107767 and the VENTS Program for development and construction of MAPRs for use in ice-covered seas. H.J.B.D. acknowledges NSF grant OCE-9907630 for support of SWIR studies. J.E.S. was supported by Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft grant SN15/2.
    Keywords: Gakkel Ridge ; Hydrothermal venting ; Magmatic budget ; Southwest Indian Ridge ; Ultraslow ridges
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: 4239927 bytes
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2006. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems 7 (2006): Q11022, doi:10.1029/2006GC001324.
    Description: We report evidence for active hydrothermal venting along two back-arc spreading centers of the NE Lau Basin: the Fonualei Rift and Spreading Center (FRSC) and the Northeast Lau Spreading Center (NELSC). The ridge segments investigated here are of particular interest as the potential source of a mid-water hydrothermal plume (1500–2000 m depth) which extends more than 2000 km across the SW Pacific Ocean dispersing away from an apparent origin close to the most northeastern limits of the Lau Basin. Our results indicate the presence of at least four new hydrothermal plume sources, three along the FRSC and one on the NELSC, the latter situated within 150 km of the maximum for the previously identified SW Pacific regional-scale plume. However, TDFe and TDMn concentrations in the southernmost FRSC plume that we have identified only reach values of 19 and 13 nmol/L and dissolved 3He anomalies in the same plume are also small, both in relation to the SW Pacific plume and to local background, which shows evidence for extensive 3He enrichment throughout the entire Lau Basin water column. Our results reveal no evidence for a single major point hydrothermal source anywhere in the NE Lau Basin. Instead, we conclude that the regional-scale SW Pacific hydrothermal plume most probably results from the cumulative hydrothermal output of the entire topographically restricted Lau Basin, discharging via its NE-most corner.
    Description: This research was funded jointly by NSF's Ridge 2000 Program (OCE-0242002 and OCE-0242618), by the NOAA Vents Program, and by core strategic funding from the Natural Environment Research Council to the National Oceanography Centre, Southampton (UK).
    Keywords: Hydrothermal ; Exploration ; Lau Basin ; SW Pacific
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: 14830812 bytes
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 15 (2014): 4093–4115, doi:10.1002/2014GC005387.
    Description: We present multiple lines of evidence for years to decade-long changes in the location and character of volcanic activity at West Mata seamount in the NE Lau basin over a 16 year period, and a hiatus in summit eruptions from early 2011 to at least September 2012. Boninite lava and pyroclasts were observed erupting from its summit in 2009, and hydroacoustic data from a succession of hydrophones moored nearby show near-continuous eruptive activity from January 2009 to early 2011. Successive differencing of seven multibeam bathymetric surveys of the volcano made in the 1996–2012 period reveals a pattern of extended constructional volcanism on the summit and northwest flank punctuated by eruptions along the volcano's WSW rift zone (WSWRZ). Away from the summit, the volumetrically largest eruption during the observational period occurred between May 2010 and November 2011 at ∼2920 m depth near the base of the WSWRZ. The (nearly) equally long ENE rift zone did not experience any volcanic activity during the 1996–2012 period. The cessation of summit volcanism recorded on the moored hydrophone was accompanied or followed by the formation of a small summit crater and a landslide on the eastern flank. Water column sensors, analysis of gas samples in the overlying hydrothermal plume and dives with a remotely operated vehicle in September 2012 confirmed that the summit eruption had ceased. Based on the historical eruption rates calculated using the bathymetric differencing technique, the volcano could be as young as several thousand years.
    Description: Support for R.W.E. during this study was by internal NOAA funding to the NOAA Vents Program (now Earth-Ocean Interactions Program). The NSF Ridge 2000 and MARGINS programs played a major role in the planning and justification for the 2009 rapid response proposal that funded the May 2009 expedition. MBARI provided support and outstanding postprocessing of the multibeam bathymetry from the D. Allan B. AUV multibeam sonar used in this study. NSF also provided major funding for the 2009 expedition (OCE930025 and OCE-0934660 to JAR) and for the 210Po-210Pb radiometric dating (OCE-0929881 and for the 210Po-210Pb radiometric dating (OCE-0929881 to KHR)). The NOAA Office of Exploration and Research provided major funding for the 2009 and 2012 field programs.
    Description: 2015-04-30
    Keywords: Seamount ; Lau ; Volcano ; Eruption ; Submarine ; Multibeam
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-06-06
    Description: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research 314 (2016): 142-155, doi:10.1016/j.jvolgeores.2015.07.037.
    Description: Autonomous underwater vehicles were used to conduct a high-resolution water column survey of Lake Rotomahana using temperature, pH, turbidity, and oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) to identify active hydrothermal discharge zones within the lake. Five areas with active sublacustrine venting were identified: (1) the area of the historic Pink Terraces; (2) adjacent to the western shoreline subaerial “Steaming Cliffs,” boiling springs and geyser; (3) along the northern shoreline to the east of the Pink Terrace site; (4) the newly discovered Patiti hydrothermal system along the south margin of the 1886 Tarawera eruption rift zone; and (5) a location in the east basin (northeast of Patiti Island). The Pink Terrace hydrothermal system was active prior to the 1886 eruption of Mount Tarawera, but venting along the western shoreline, in the east basin, and the Patiti hydrothermal system appear to have been initiated in the aftermath of the eruption, similar to Waimangu Valley to the southwest. Different combinations of turbidity, pH anomalies (both positive and negative), and ORP responses suggest vent fluid compositions vary over short distances within the lake. The seasonal period of stratification limits vertical transport of heat to the surface layer and the hypolimnion temperature of Lake Rotomahana consequently increases with an average warming rate of ~ 0.010 °C/day due to both convective hydrothermal discharge and conductive geothermal heating. A sudden temperature increase occurred during our 2011 survey and was likely the response to an earthquake swarm just 11 days prior.
    Description: Funding was provided by GNS Strategic Development Fund.
    Keywords: Lake Rotomahana ; Hydrothermal venting ; pH ; Turbidity ; Oxidation–reduction potential ; Freshwater lakes
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: The relationships between tectonic processes, magmatism, and hydrothermal venting along ∼600 km of the slow-spreading Mariana back-arc between 12.7°N and 18.3°N reveal a number of similarities and differences compared to slow-spreading mid-ocean ridges. Analysis of the volcanic geomorphology and structure highlights the complexity of the back-arc spreading center. Here, ridge segmentation is controlled by large-scale basement structures that appear to predate back-arc rifting. These structures also control the orientation of the chains of cross-arc volcanoes that characterize this region. Segment-scale faulting is oriented perpendicular to the spreading direction, allowing precise spreading directions to be determined. Four morphologically distinct segment types are identified: dominantly magmatic segments (Type I); magmatic segments currently undergoing tectonic extension (Type II); dominantly tectonic segments (Type III); and tectonic segments currently undergoing magmatic extension (Type IV). Variations in axial morphology (including eruption styles, neovolcanic eruption volumes, and faulting) reflect magma supply, which is locally enhanced by cross-arc volcanism associated with N-S compression along the 16.5°N and 17.0°N segments. In contrast, cross-arc seismicity is associated with N-S extension and increased faulting along the 14.5°N segment, with structures that are interpreted to be oceanic core complexes—the first with high-resolution bathymetry described in an active back-arc basin. Hydrothermal venting associated with recent magmatism has been discovered along all segment types.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Back-arc spreading centers (BASCs) form a distinct class of ocean spreading ridges distinguished by steep along-axis gradients in spreading rate and by additional magma supplied through subduction. These characteristics can affect the population and distribution of hydrothermal activity on BASCs compared to mid-ocean ridges (MORs). To investigate this hypothesis, we comprehensively explored 600 km of the southern half of the Mariana BASC. We used water column mapping and seafloor imaging to identify 19 active vent sites, an increase of 13 over the current listing in the InterRidge Database (IRDB), on the bathymetric highs of 7 of the 11 segments. We identified both high and low (i.e., characterized by a weak or negligible particle plume) temperature discharge occurring on segment types spanning dominantly magmatic to dominantly tectonic. Active sites are concentrated on the two southernmost segments, where distance to the adjacent arc is shortest (〈40 km), spreading rate is highest (〉48 mm/yr), and tectonic extension is pervasive. Re-examination of hydrothermal data from other BASCs supports the generalization that hydrothermal site density increases on segments 〈90 km from an adjacent arc. Although exploration quality varies greatly among BASCs, present data suggest that, for a given spreading rate, the mean spatial density of hydrothermal activity varies little between MORs and BASCs. The present global database, however, may be misleading. On both BASCs and MORs, the spatial density of hydrothermal sites mapped by high-quality water-column surveys is 2–7 times greater than predicted by the existing IRDB trend of site density versus spreading rate.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-02-06
    Description: Submarine volcanic eruptions are difficult to detect because they are hidden from view at the bottom of the ocean and far from land-based sensors. However, most of Earth’s volcanic activity is in the oceans along tectonic plate boundaries, and modern tools of oceanography now allow us to find and study recent eruptions in the deep sea. The first known historical eruption on the Mariana back-arc spreading center was discovered in December 2015 during exploration of the southern back-arc for new hydrothermal vent sites. A water-column survey along the axis of the back-arc showed hydrothermal plumes over the site characterized by low particle concentrations and relatively high reduced chemical anomalies. A dive with the autonomous underwater vehicle Sentry collected high-resolution (1 m) multibeam sonar bathymetry over the site, followed by a near-bottom photographic survey of a smaller area. The photo survey revealed the presence of a pristine, dark, glassy lava flow on the seafloor with no sediment cover. Venting of milky hydrothermal fluid indicated that the lava flow was still warm and therefore very young. A comparison of multibeam sonar bathymetry collected by R/V Falkor in December 2015, to the most recent previous survey of the area by R/V Melville in February 2013, revealed large depth changes in the same area, effectively bracketing the timing of the eruption within a window of less than 3 years. The bathymetric comparison shows the eruption produced a string of lava flows with maximum thicknesses of 40–138 m along a distance of 7.3 km (from latitude 15∘22.3′ to 15∘26.3′N) between depths of 4050–4450 m bsl (meters below sea level), making this the deepest known historical submarine volcanic eruption on Earth. The cross-axis width of the lava flows is 200–800 m. The Sentry bathymetry shows that the new lava flows are constructed of steep-sided hummocky pillow mounds and are surrounded by older flows with similar morphology. In April and December 2016, two dives were made on the new lava flows by remotely operated vehicles Deep Discoverer and SuBastian. The pillow lavas have many small glassy buds on the steep flanks of the mounds, locally thick accumulations of hydrothermal sediment near the tops of mounds, and small cones of radiating pillows at their summits. The 2015–2016 observations show a rapidly declining hydrothermal system on the lava flows, suggesting that the eruption had occurred only months before its discovery in December 2015. The morphology of the pillow lavas is similar to other historical eruption sites, so the greater depth and ambient pressure of this site had no apparent effect on the processes of lava extrusion and emplacement. This study reveals that some segments of the Mariana back-arc have active magmatic systems despite the relatively low spreading rate, and that other eruptions are possible in the near future.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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