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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-07-19
    Description: We have used a global MHD simulation with high spatial resolution to investigate the origin and properties of turbulence in the plasma sheet. In this simulation we imposed a steady southward IMF with a magnitude of 5 nT at the upstream simulation boundary for more than three hours followed by ninety minutes of northward IMF of the same magnitude. The solar wind number density was 20 cm-3, the thermal pressure was 20 pPa, and the velocity was 500 km/s in the x direction. The moderately high dynamic pressure confined the magnetotail to the high-grid resolution region. Even for these nominal solar wind parameters and steady driving the plasma sheet became turbulent. The power spectral densities and probability distribution functions computed from the simulations were comparable to those obtained from spacecraft observations. The largest scale vortices were associated with reconnection outflows and, in the southward IMF case, with the diversion of high speed flows in the near-Earth region. Both time and space domain analyses revealed that there were three scales present, the large scale of the driving processes, the intermediate inertial scale and the dissipative scale.
    Keywords: Space Sciences (General)
    Type: SM53A-06 , GSFC.ABS.5719.2011 , American Geophysical Union (AGU) 2011 Fall Meeting; Dec 05, 2011 - Dec 09, 2011; San Francisco, CA; United States
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: How the addition of ions at rest (mass loading) affects the temperature of a flowing plasma in a MHD approximation is investigated, using analytic theory and time dependent, three-dimensional MHD simulations of plasma flow past Io. The MHD equations show that the temperature can increase or decrease relative to the background, depending on the local sonic Mach number M(S), of the flow. For flows with M(S) of greater than sq rt 9/5 (when gamma = 5/3), mass loading increases the plasma temperature. However, the simulations show a nonlinear response to the addition of mass. If the mass loading rate is large enough, the temperature increase may be smaller than expected, or the temperature may actually decrease, because a large mass loading rate slows the flow and decreases the thermal energy of the newly created plasma.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 16; 763-766
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The interaction of the solar wind with the earth magnetosphere is investigated theoretically by means of three-dimensional MHD simulations, with a focus on the effects of changes in the Bz component of the IMF. A high-resolution (0.5 earth radii) version of the model of Ogino et al. (1986) is employed, and the results are presented in a series of computer-generated maps and diagrams and characterized in detail. Bz of -5 nT is found to be associated with dipolar magnetic-field lines near the earth and very concave lines in the magnetotail, while Bz of +5 nT produces a narrow finger of closed field lines extending into the polar cap. Both IMF orientations have sunward convection near the noon-midnight meridian and region-1-type field-aligned currents on both sides of the plasma-sheet extension.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Nagoya University, Research Institute of Atmospherics, Proceedings (ISSN 0077-264X); 35; 1-23
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: The interaction between the solar wind and cometary plasmas is simulated using a three-dimensional time-dependent MHD simulation model, and the results are compared with the recent satellite observations of Comet Halley. The model, which includes cometary mass loading, reproduces many of the features observed by the Suisei probe and the Giottot, including the weak bow shock, the enhancement of the magnetic field in front of the contact surface, and the plasma temperature increase across the bow shock (while it decreased near the comet).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 93; 9568-957
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The interaction of the solar wind and the earth's magnetosphere is presently simulated by a 3D, time-dependent, global MHD method in order to model the magnetopause and magnetotail generation of magnetic flux ropes. It is noted that strongly twisted and localized magnetic flux tubes simular to magnetic flux ropes appear at the subpolar magnetopause when the IMF has a large azimuthal component, as well as a southward component. Plasmoids are generated in the magnetotail after the formation of a near-earth magnetic neutral line; the magnetic field lines have a helical structure that is connected from dawn to dusk.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Plasma pressure data from the ISEE 2 fast plasma experiment (FPE) are statistically analyzed to determine the plasma sheet pressure versus distance in the midnight local time sector of the near-earth (12-35 earth radii) magnetotail plasma sheet. In regions where the bulk of the plasma pressure is contributed by particles in the energy range of the FPE (70 eV to 40 keV for ions), the statistically determined peak plasma pressures vary with distance similarly to previously determined lobe magnetic pressures. Estimates of plasma pressures in the 'transition' region (7-12 earth radii), where the magnetic field topology changes rapidly from a dipolar to a taillike configuration, are compared with the observed pressure profiles. Quiet time observations and estimates are combined to provide profiles of the equatorial plasma pressure along the midnight meridian between 2.5 and 35 earth radii.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 94; 5264-527
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: We have used global magnetohydrodynamic, simulations of the interaction between the solar wind and magnetosphere together with single particle trajectory calculations to investigate the sources of plasma entering the magnetosphere. In all of our calculations solar wind plasma primarily enters the magnetosphere when the field line on which it is convecting reconnects. When the interplanetary magnetic field has a northward component the reconnection is in the polar cusp region. In the simulations plasma in the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL) can be on either open or closed field lines. Open field lines occur when the high latitude reconnection occurs in only one cusp. In the MHD calculations the ionosphere does not contribute significantly to the LLBL for northward IMF. The particle trajectory calculations show that ions preferentially enter in the cusp region where they can be accelerated by non-adiabatic motion across the high latitude electric field. For southward IMF in the MHD simulations the plasma in the middle and inner magnetosphere comes from the inner (ionospheric) boundary of the simulation. Solar wind plasma on open field lines is confined to high latitudes and exits the tailward boundary of the simulation without reaching the plasma sheet. The LLBL is populated by both ionospheric and solar wind plasma. When the particle trajectories are included solar wind ions can enter the middle magnetosphere. We have used both the MHD simulations and the particle calculations to estimate source rates for the magnetosphere which are consistent with those inferred from observations.
    Keywords: Geophysics
    Type: UCLA-IGPP-Preprint-5678
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The MOST IDS team was tasked with focusing on two general areas: The first was to participate with the Fast Plasma Investigation (FPI) team in the development of virtual detectors that model the instrument responses of the MMS FPI sensors. The virtual instruments can be 'flown through' both simulation data (from magnetohydrodynamic, hybrid, and kinetic simulations) and Cluster and THEMIS spacecraft data. The goal is to determine signatures of magnetic reconnection expected during the MMS mission. Such signatures can serve as triggers for selection of burst mode downloads. The chapter contributed by the FPI team covers that effort in detail and, therefore, most of that work has not been included here. The second area of emphasis, and the one detailed in this chapter, was to build on past and present knowledge of magnetic reconnection and its physical signatures. Below we describe intensive analyses of Cluster and THEMIS data together with theoretical models and simulations that delineate the plasma signatures that surround sites of reconnection, including the effects of turbulence as well as the detailed kinetic signatures that indicate proximity to reconnection sites. In particular, we point out that particles are energized in several regions, not only at the actual site of reconnection.
    Keywords: Geophysics; Computer Programming and Software
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN41233 , Space Science Reviews (ISSN 0038-6308) (e-ISSN 1572-9672); 199; 1; 689-719
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-10
    Description: The goal of this project was to develop a new global magnetohydrodynamic model of the interaction of the Jovian magnetosphere with the solar wind. Observations from 28 orbits of Jupiter by Galileo along with those from previous spacecraft at Jupiter, Pioneer 10 and 11, Voyager I and 2 and Ulysses, have revealed that the Jovian magnetosphere is a vast, complicated system. The Jovian aurora also has been monitored for several years. Like auroral observations at Earth, these measurements provide us with a global picture of magnetospheric dynamics. Despite this wide range of observations, we have limited quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and how it interacts with the solar wind. For the past several years we have been working toward a quantitative understanding of the Jovian magnetosphere and its interaction with the solar wind by employing global magnetohydrodynamic simulations to model the magnetosphere. Our model has been an explicit MHD code (previously used to model the Earth's magnetosphere) to study Jupiter's magnetosphere. We continue to obtain important insights with this code, but it suffers from some severe limitations. In particular with this code we are limited to considering the region outside of 15RJ, with cell sizes of about 1.5R(sub J). The problem arises because of the presence of widely separated time scales throughout the magnetosphere. The numerical stability criterion for explicit MHD codes is the CFL limit and is given by C(sub max)(Delta)t/(Delta)x less than 1 where C(sub max) is the maximum group velocity in a given cell, (Delta)x is the grid spacing and (Delta)t is the time step. If the maximum wave velocity is C(sub w) and the flow speed is C(sub f), C(sub max) = C(sub w) + C(sub f). Near Jupiter the Alfven wave speed becomes very large (it approaches the speed of light at one Jovian radius). Operating with this time step makes the calculation essentially intractable. Therefore under this funding we have been designing a new MHD model that will be able to compute solutions in the wide parameter regime of the Jovian magnetosphere.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: We have examined some possible entry mechanisms of solar wind ions into the magnetosphere by calculating the trajectories of thousands of non-interacting ions in the magnetic and electric fields from a three dimensional global magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of the magnetosphere and the magnetosheath, under northward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions. Particles, launched in the solar wind, entered the magnetosphere and formed the low latitude boundary layer (LLBL), plasma sheet and a region of trapped particles near the Earth. The densities and temperatures we obtained in these regions were realistic, with the exception of trapped particle densities. The dominant entry mechanism was convection into the magnetosphere on reconnecting field lines.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 21; 23; p. 2455-2458
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