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  • 1
    Call number: ZSP-201-83/24
    In: CRREL Report, 83-24
    Description / Table of Contents: Secondary recovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, will involve transporting large quantities of seawater in elevated pipelines across tundra for injection into oil-bearing rock strata. The possibility of a pipeline rupture raises questions concerning the effects of seawater on tundra vegetation and soils. To evaluate the relative sensitivities of different plant communities to seawater, eight sites representing the range of vegetation types along the pipeline route were treated with single, saturating applications of seawater during the summer of 1980. Within a month of the treatment 30 of 37 taxa of shrubs and forbs in the experimental plots developed clear symptoms of stress, while none of the 14 graminoid taxa showed apparent adverse affects. Live vascular plant cover was thus reduced by 89 and 91% in the two dry sites and by 54, 74 and 83% in the three moist sites, respectively. Live(green) bryophyte cover was markedly reduced in the moist experimental sites in 1981. Bryophytes in all but one of the wet-site experimental plots were apparently unaffected by the seawater treatment. Two species of foliose lichens treated with seawater showed marked deterioration in 1981. All other lichen taxa were apparently unaffected by the seawater treatment. The absorption and retention of salts by the soil is inversely related to the soil moisture regime. In the wet sites, conductivities approached prespill levels within about 30 days. In such sites, spills at the experimental volumes are quickly diluted and the salts flushed from the soil. In the dry sites, on the other hand, salts are retained in the soil, apparently concentrating at or near the seasonal thaw line.
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 43 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Series Statement: CRREL Report 83-24
    Language: English
    Note: CONTENTS Abstract Preface Introduction Methods Site selection and preparation Prespill assessment Seawater application Postspill assessment Enzyme assay and analysis of soil flora Results and discussion Soil-solution conductivities Vascular plant response Cryptogam response Site factors and plant response Soil flora and extracellular soil enzymes Limitations of this study Summary and conclusions Literature cited Appendix: Plant taxa included in this study
    Location: AWI Archive
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-1009
    Keywords: Permafrost ; Off-road vehicles ; ORV ; Trails ; Impacts ; Effects ; Mitigation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering
    Notes: Abstract Use of off-road vehicles (ORVs) in permafrost-affected terrain of Alaska has increased sharply over the past two decades. Until the early 1960s, most ORV use was by industry or government, which employed heavy vehicles such as industrial tractors and tracked carriers. Smaller, commercial ORVs became available in the 1960s, with the variety and number in use rapidly increasing. Wheeled and tracked ORVs, many used exclusively for recreation or subsistence harvesting by individuals, are now ubiquitous in Alaska. This increased use has led to concern over the cumulative effects of such vehicles on vegetation, soils, and environmental variables including off-site values. Factors affecting impact and subsequent restoration include specific environmental setting; vegetation; presence and ice content of permafrost; microtopography; vehicle design, weight, and ground pressure; traffic frequency; season of traffic; and individual operator practices. Approaches for mitigating adverse effects of ORVs include regulation and zoning, terrain analysis and sensitivity mapping, route selection, surface protection, and operator training.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Calcified tissue international 9 (1972), S. 296-309 
    ISSN: 1432-0827
    Keywords: Osteoclasts ; Enzyme ; Parathyroid ; Microdissection ; Ultrastructure
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Physics
    Description / Table of Contents: Résumé Une nouvelle méthode d'isolement d'ostéoclastes est mise au point pour des analyses biochimiques et de microscopie électronique. Pour isoler les cellules par microdissection, des empreintes d'os métaphysaire sont utilisées. Cette méthode, supérieure aux coupes d'os, permet une meilleure préservation cytologique et enzymatique et permet d'obtenir des cellules totales plus faciles à manipuler, avec des résultats plus reproductibles. Par analyse planimètrique de cellules isolées, colorées histochimiquement, il apparait que les ostéoclastes constituent plus de 90% de la masse de l'échantillon. Les concentrations de la phosphatase acide et de certaines enzymes, liées au nucléotide pyridinique, entrant dans le métabolisme de l'acide citrique, sont déterminées dans des échantillons d'ostéoclastes, pesant de 0,2 à 2,0 μg, isolés à partir de rats normaux et parathyroidectomisés. L'activité en aconitase, mesurée en direction de la transformation de citrate en isocitrate, est de 0,5–0,8 M/Kd/H, la plus faible des activités étudiées. Les activités en GDH et NADP-ICDH sont 5 à 10 fois supérieures que celle de l'aconitase, mais seulement un dixième à un tiers de celle de la phosphatase acide, de la déshydrogénase lactique ou malique.
    Abstract: Zusammenfassung Es wird eine neue Technik beschrieben, welche die Isolierung von Osteoklasten für biochemische und elektronenmikroskopische Untersuchungen ermöglicht. Als Ausgangsmaterial zur Zellisolierung wurden Abstriche von Metaphysenknochen benützt. Die Verwendung von Abstrichen bietet gegenüber Knochenschnitten wichtige Vorteile, wie z.B. eine bessere Erhaltung der cytologischen und enzymatischen Eigenschaften sowie die Gewinnung von unverletzten Zellen, welche leichter verarbeitet werden können und besser reproduzierbare Daten ergeben. Durch planimetrische Analyse der histochemisch gefärbten Ausstriche von isolierten Zellen konnte nachgewiesen werden, daß die Osteoklasten über 90% des gesamten Probenmaterials ausmachen. Die Mengen verschiedener Enzyme, welche an Pyridinnukleotid gebunden und am Citronensäuremetabolismus beteiligt sind, sowie der sauren Phosphatase wurden in Osteoklastenproben bestimmt, welche ein Gewicht von 0,2–2,0 μg hatten und aus Knochen von normalen und mit Parathyroidextrakten behandelten Ratten isoliert worden waren. Die Aktivität der Aconitase, welche in der Richtung von Citrat zu Isocitrat gemessen wurde, war mit 0,5–0,8 M/Kd/H die niedrigste aller untersuchten Aktivitäten. Die Aktivitäten der GDH und der NADP-ICDH waren 5–10mal höher als jene der Aconitase, entsprachen jedoch nur einem Zehntel bis einem Drittel derjenigen der sauren Phosphatase, der Laktat- oder der Malatdehydrogenase.
    Notes: Abstract A new method is described by which osteoclasts can be isolated for biochemical and electron microscopic analyses. As a source of cells for isolation by microdissection, imprints of metaphyseal bone were used. The use of imprints provides important advantages over bone sections, including a higher degree of cytologic and enzymatic preservation, and the delivery of whole cells which are more readily manipulated and which yield data that are more readily reproduced. By planimetric analysis of the histochemically-stained isolated cell samples, it was shown that osteoclasts represent over 90% of the sample mass. The levels of several of the pyridine nucleotide-linked enzymes involved in citric acid metabolism, as well as acid phosphatase, were determined in osteoclast samples weighing 0.2 to 2.0 μg isolated from normal and parathyroid-treated rats. Aconitase activity measured in the direction of citrate to isocitrate was 0.5–0.8 M/Kd/H, the lowest of the activities studied. The activities of GDH and NADP-ICDH were 5 to 10 times higher than that of aconitase but only a tenth to a third that of acid phosphatase, lactic or malic dehydrogenase.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-12-25
    Description: Top melting of ice-wedges and subsequent ground subsidence is now a widespread phenomenon across the Arctic domain. We show field and remote sensing observations that document extensive ice-wedge degradation, which initially has resulted in increased wetness contrast across the landscape (i.e. both a drying and a wetting), a shift in pond type and an overall drying in later stages. The differential ground subsidence at cold continuous permafrost regions appear to be linked to press and pulse climate forcing. Here, the process of crossing the local threshold for ice-wedge stability may be favored by a press occurrence such as long-term, gradual increases in summer air temperature, mean annual air temperature and/or possibly winter precipitation, but our observations suggest it is most likely initiated by pulse atmospheric forcing such as extreme summer warmth and/or winter precipitation. Field measurements of water levels, frost tables and snow accumulation across the main ice-wedge polygon types and their respective features support dramatic shifts in the hydrologic regime with altered topography and a complexity that ultimately affect the larger-scale hydrologic system. For example, our numerical model experiments show that a connected trough-network reduces inundation and increases runoff and that changing patterns of snow distribution due to the differential ground subsidence play a crucial role in altering lowland tundra water balance. These fine-scale (10’s cm) geomorphic changes are expected to further expand and amplify in rapidly warming permafrost regions and likely will dramatically modify land-atmosphere and land-ocean fluxes and exchange of carbon, water, and energy.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-09
    Description: Ice-wedges are common permafrost features formed over hundreds to thousands of years of repeated frost cracking and ice vein growth. We used field and remote sensing observations to assess changes in areas dominated by ice-wedges, and we simulated the effects of those changes on watershed-scale hydrology. We show that top melting of ice-wedges and subsequent ground subsidence has occurred at multiple sites in the North American and Russian Arctic. At most sites, melting ice-wedges have initially resulted in increased wetness contrast across the landscape, evident as increased surface water in the ice-wedge polygon troughs and somewhat drier polygon centers. Most areas are becoming more heterogeneous with wetter troughs, more small ponds (themokarst pits forming initially at ice-wedge intersections and then spreading along the troughs) and drier polygon centers. Some areas with initial good drainage, such as near creeks, lake margins, and in hilly terrain, high-centered polygons form an overall landscape drying due to a drying of both polygon centers and troughs. Unlike the multi-decadal warming observed in permafrost temperatures, the ice-wedge melting that we observed appeared as a sub-decadal response, even at locations with low mean annual permafrost temperatures (down to −14 °C). Gradual long-term air and permafrost warming combined with anomalously warm summers or deep snow winters preceded the onset of the ice-wedge melting. To assess hydrological impacts of ice-wedge melting, we simulated tundra water balance before and after melting. Our coupled hydrological and thermal model experiments applied over hypothetical polygon surfaces suggest that (1) ice-wedge melting that produces a connected trough-network reduces inundation and increases runoff, and that (2) changing patterns of snow distribution due to differential ground subsidence has a major control on ice-wedge polygon tundra water balance despite an identical snow water equivalent at the landscape-scale. These decimeter-scale geomorphic changes are expected to continue in permafrost regions dominated by ice-wedge polygons, with implications for land-atmosphere and land-ocean fluxes of water, carbon, and energy.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Summary Use of restriction endonucleases BglII, EcoRI, BamHI, and HindIII, has established that in small-headed (PIS) virions of coliphage P1, as a population, the entire genome found in big-headed (P1B) virions is represented. In addition, the origin and direction of DNA packaging are identical in P1S and P1B virions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] Proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) generates amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, which is thought to be causal for the pathology and subsequent cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease. Cleavage by β-secretase at the amino terminus of the Aβ peptide ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Analytical chemistry 29 (1957), S. 164-165 
    ISSN: 1520-6882
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    The @journal of organic chemistry 47 (1982), S. 2999-3000 
    ISSN: 1520-6904
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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