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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Male and female subjects prebreathed air or 100% oxygen through a mask for 3.0 hours while comfortably reclined. Blood pressures, heart rate, and cardiac output were collected before and after the prebreathe. Peripheral vascular resistance (PVR) was calculated from these parameters and increased by 29% during oxygen prebreathing and 15% during air prebreathing. The oxygen contributed substantially to the increase in PVR. Diastolic blood pressure increased by 18% during the oxygen prebreathe while stystolic blood pressure showed no change under either procedure. The increase in PVR during air prebreathing was attributed to procedural stress common to air and oxygen prebreathing.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: NAS 1.15:58261 , S-537 , NASA-TM-58261
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Three test series involving 173-man tess were conducted to define and verify a pre-extravehicular activity (EVA) denitrogenation procedure that would provide acceptable protection against altitude decompression sickness while minimizing the required duration of oxygen (O2) prebreathe in the suit prior to EVA. The tests also addressed the safety, in terms of incidence of decompression sickness, of conducting EVA's on consecutive days rather than on alternate days. The tests were conducted in an altitude chamber, subjects were selected as representative of the astronaut population, and EVA periods were simulated by reducing the chamber pressure to suit pressure while the subjects breathed O2 with masks and worked at EVA representative work rates. A higher than anticipated incidence of both venous bubbles (55%) and symptoms (26%) was measured following all denitrogenation protocols in this test. For the most part, symptoms were very minor and stabilized, diminished, or disappeared in the six-hour tests. Instances of clear, possible, or potential systemic symptoms were encountered only after use of the unmodified 10.2 psi protocol and not after the modified 10.2 psi protocol, the 3.5-hour O2 prebreathed protocol, or the 4.0-hour O2 prebreathe protocol. The high incidence of symptoms is ascribed to the type and duration of exercise and the sensitivity of the reporting technique to minor symptoms. Repeated EVA exposures after only 17 hours did not increase symptom or bubble incidence.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: NAS 1.15:58259 , NASA-TM-58259 , S-534
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: This analysis was done to determine whether various decompression response groups could be characterized by the pooled nitrogen (N2) washout profiles of the group members, pooling individual washout profiles provided a smooth time dependent function of means representative of the decompression response group. No statistically significant differences were detected. The statistical comparisons of the profiles were performed by means of univariate weighted t-test at each 5 minute profile point, and with levels of significance of 5 and 10 percent. The estimated powers of the tests (i.e., probabilities) to detect the observed differences in the pooled profiles were of the order of 8 to 30 percent.
    Keywords: STATISTICS AND PROBABILITY
    Type: NASA-TM-58265 , NAS 1.15:58265 , S-545
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Doppler, or ultrasonic, monitoring for pain manifestations of decompression sickness (the bends) is accomplished by placing a sensor on the chest over the pulmonary artery and listening for bubbles. Difficulties have arisen because the technician notes that the pulmonary artery seems to move with subject movement in a one-g field and because the sensor output is influenced by only slight degrees of sensor movement. This study used two subjects and mapped the position of the pulmonary artery in one-g, microgravity, and two-g environments using ultrasound. The results showed that the pulmonary artery is fixed in location in microgravity and not affected by subject position change. The optimal position corresponded to where the Doppler signal is best heard with the subject in a supine position in a one-g environment. The impact of this result is that a proposed multiple sensor array on the chest proposed for microgravity use may not be necessary to monitor an astronaut during extravehicular activities. Instead, a single sensor of approximately 1 inch diameter and mounted in the position described above may suffice.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: NAS 1.15:58262 , S-538 , NASA-TM-58262
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-12-01
    Description: The physiological parameters that will affect EMU design and operational scheduling for the Space Station Program are discussed. The system must be designed to safely and effectively handle the increased frequency of extravehicular activity projected for longer flight periods than in the past. In order to minimize the risk of decompression sickness a proper combination of equilibration time to cabin pressure, suit pressure, and prebreathing denitrogenation, is necessary. Effective thermal exchange is projected to be automatically controlled and to have an 8-hr 1000 BTU/hr capability. Physiological changes due to adaptation to weightlessness must be considered in scheduling for their impact on performance/fatigue and in coping with motion sickness. Radiation protection to the limit of 80 rad/quarter must be achieved by scheduling to avoid periodic proton and solar flare exposure, and by additional EMU shielding. Additional EMU considerations are the control of microorganisms and the higher pressure requirement for emergency O2 purge.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: SAE PAPER 851313
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-06-07
    Description: The data on metabolic rates during Skylab extravehicular activities are presented and compared with prior experience during Gemini and Apollo. Difficulties experienced with Gemini extravehicular activities are reviewed. The effect of a pressure suit on metabolic rate is discussed and the life support equipment capabilities of each life support system are reviewed. The methods used to measure metabolic rate, utilizing bioinstrumentation and operational data on the life support system, are described. Metabolic rates are correlated with different activities. Metabolic rates in Skylab were found to be within the capacities of the life support systems and to be similar to the metabolic rates experienced during Apollo lunar 1/6-g extravehicular activities. They were found to range from 100 kcal/h to 500 kcal/h, during both 1/6-g and zero-g extravehicular activities. The average metabolic rates measured during long extravehicular activities were remarkably consistent and appeared to be a function of crew pacing of activity rather than to the effort involved in individual tasks.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: Proc. of the Skylab Life Sci. Symp., Vol. 2; p 775-784
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-01-25
    Description: Limits for operational environments are discussed in terms of acceptable physiological changes. The environmental factors considered are pressure, contaminants, temperature, acceleration, noise, rf radiation, and weightlessness.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: NASA-RP-1045 , S-487
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  • 8
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    In:  CASI
    Publication Date: 2006-01-16
    Description: The physiological effects, discomfort, and performance degradation associated with an imbalanced thermal environment are discussed. Temperature tolerance limits are set using thermoregulation models and experimental results. The effects of interacting environmental factors, individual variations, and exposure duration on tolerance limits are considered.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: The Physiol. Basis for Spacecraft Environ. Limits; p 57-69
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2006-01-16
    Description: The physiological effects of forces resulting in radial acceleration, sustained linear acceleration, impact, or vibration are identified. Tolerance limits are presented for these forces.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: The Physiol. Basis for Spacecraft Environ. Limits; p 71-107
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-01-16
    Description: The Skylab zero-g extravehicular activity data is of particular interest when it is considered in combination with the Apollo and Gemini data. The energy cost of extravehicular activity from Gemini through Skylab is discussed.
    Keywords: AEROSPACE MEDICINE
    Type: Biomed. Results from Skylab; p 395-399
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