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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-01-22
    Description: The diagnosis of gastrointestinal graft versus host disease (GI-GVHD) is based on clinical symptoms and histological findings. In clinical practice, it is often difficult to decide whether abdominal symptoms in an allogeneic transplant recipient are caused by GVHD or other disorders. Endoscopic biopsies are helpful in establishing the diagnosis, but endoscopy is not always possible to perform due to poor general condition of the patients. No biomarkers are routinely used to predict GVHD. The aim of fecal calprotectin and alpha-1 antitrypsin testing in our study was to find out whether determination of the concentrations of these proteins may be used as a screening method for enteric GVHD. We studied prospectively 51 patients, 8 of whom developed GI-GVHD. Our data demonstrate that elevated fecal calprotectin levels were significantly associated with presence of GI-GVHD. We found a positive association between high F-calprotectin and severe gastrointestinal GVHD. In bivariate analysis, only calprotectin but not alpha-1 antitrypsin was independently associated with GI-GVHD. Testing for fecal calprotectin after allogeneic stem cell transplantation may be a useful screening tool. Scientific Reports 5 doi: 10.1038/srep07920
    Electronic ISSN: 2045-2322
    Topics: Natural Sciences in General
    Published by Springer Nature
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  • 2
  • 3
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0378-4347
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: chlorpropamide ; alcohol ; alcohol-induced flush ; plasma chlorpropamide ; plasma alcohol ; plasma acetaldehyde
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The chlorpropamide-alcohol flush (CPAF) phenomenon was quantitatively related to blood levels of acetaldehyde and chlorpropamide in 105 Type II diabetics, of whom 74 had not previously taken the drug and 31 were on chronic treatment. Standardized skin temperature recordings were made with a sensitive probe. Plasma ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were determined by gas chromatography, and those of chlorpropamide by high-pressure liquid chromatography. There were significant positive correlations between plasma acetaldehyde and the skin temperature increase, between plasma chlorpropamide and plasma acetaldehyde, and between plasma chlorpropamide and the skin temperature increase. CPAF-positive patients became CPAF-negative and vice versa following reduction and increase, respectively, in the dose of chlorpropamide. Thus, the CPAF reaction is a consequence of chlorpropamide inhibition of the oxidation of ethanol-generated acetaldehyde, and it appears that the plasma concentration of chlorpropamide is critical. It remains an open question whether the CPAF test has any prognostic value.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: acetylsalicylic acid ; diflunisal ; indomethacin ; salicylic acid ; indoprofen ; indobufen ; high-pressure liquid chromatography ; plasma level
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A high-pressure liquid chromatographic technique was developed which allowed concurrent measurement of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and salicylic acid (SA) in plasma. ASA was extensively deacetylated to SA not only in vivo but also in vitro, even in frozen plasma. The in vitro conversion could be prevented by physostigmine. In vivo, ASA was eliminated within few hours, whereas SA was continuously present following daily administration of conventional doses of ASA. A slight modification of a similar method, originally developed for naproxen determination [9], was found appropriate for measurement of the SA derivative diflunisal, of two non-SA antiinflammatory agents, indomethacin and indoprofen, and of a related anti-platelet agent, indobufen.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: Chlorpropamide ; Type 2 diabetes ; chlorpropamide-alcohol flush test (CPAF) ; skin temperature ; sex effect ; body weight effect
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Chlorpropamide-alcohol flush (CPAF) tests were carried out in 15 male and 15 female Type 2 diabetics. Twelve subjects were CPAF-positive and 18 were -negative. The two groups did not differ in age or duration of diabetes, but the CPAF-positive subjects weighed less (mean difference 13 kg) and had higher plasma chlorpropamide levels. There was a negative correlation between plasma chlorpropamide and body weight, and a positive correlation between plasma chlorpropamide and the increase in facial skin temperature. Females had higher plasma chlorpropamide, a greater skin temperature increase and lower body weight than males; there were 11 females and only 1 male amongst the 12 CPAF-positive subjects. The findings confirm that plasma chlorpropamide is a major determinant of the CPAF reaction and also show that body weight strongly influences the chlorpropamide level and, consequently, the outcome of the CPAF test. The sex difference in body weight probably accounts for most, if not all, of the sex difference in the incidence of the CPAF.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: glipizide ; Type 2 diabetes ; dosing frequency
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Two cross-over studies were carried out in 23 patients with Type 2 diabetes, to examine whether glipizide, a potent sulphonylurea with fast and complete absorption and rapid elimination (t1/2〈5 h), can be given once-daily without loss of therapeutic effect. In both studies, patients were randomly assigned to an initial dose of 7.5 mg once daily or 2.5 mg three-times daily, which was increased to 15 mg o.d. or 5 mg t.i.d. if the fasting plasma glucose remained over 10 mmol/l on the lower dosage. In Study 1 (n=11), administration once a day before breakfast was compared with intake before breakfast, lunch and early dinner (5 p.m.) and in Study 2 (n=12) the comparison was between intake once-daily before breakfast and dosing before breakfast, lunch, and at bedtime (10 p.m.). Neither the 24-hour urinary glucose excretion nor HbA1, fasting plasma glucose, insulin or C-peptide levels differed between the once and three times daily administration with the third dose given before early dinner. The nadir plasma levels of glipizide were not significantly different and were often too low to be detected. Postponing the third dose until 10 p.m. did not produce any improvement in HbA1 or in fasting plasma glucose, insulin or C-peptide. The mean nadir glipizide levels following this schedule were twice as high as those after once-daily administration. As expected, the plasma glipizide after breakfast was higher when the whole dose was taken before breakfast than when it was divided. The corresponding plasma level of insulin was higher and that of plasma glucose was lower. The after-lunch levels of glipizide did not differ significantly, and there was no after-lunch difference in plasma insulin or glucose. It appears that the major effect of glipizide is to augment insulin availability following meals, whilst it has little influence on nocturnal glucose control. In a daily dose of 7.5 mg or more, glipizide can be taken once daily without loss of efficacy, at least in areas with Northern European meal schedules.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: indomethacin ; diflunisal ; pharmacokinetics ; drug interaction ; adverse effects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The single-dose pharmacokinetics of indomethacin following 100 mg rectally was measured in two groups of 8 healthy subjects before and after diflunisal 500 mg p.o. once daily, or 500 mg in the morning and 1000 mg in the evening, until steady state conditions were reached. A further group of 8 healthy subjects was given 50 mg indomethacin rectally before and after diflunisal 500 mg p.o. twice daily. High dose diflunisal (1500 mg/day) decreased the renal clearance of indomethacin from 21.9 to 1.8 ml/min (92%) and reduced the renal excretion of both unchanged (63%) and conjugated (82%) indomethacin. The apparent total body clearance (0.12 l/h/kg), apparent volume of distribution (0.98 l/kg), and volume of distribution at steady state (0.80 l/kg) were decreased by 47%, 35% and 30%. The maximum plasma concentration (2.4 µg/ml) and total area under the curve (13.0 µg × h/ml) were increased by 40% and 119%, respectively. The terminal elimination half-life (5.7 h) and mean residence time (6.7 h) were slightly prolonged (7.0 h and 8.8 h) in the presence of diflunisal. The contribution of metabolism to the overall elimination of indomethacin was increased by only 2%. Similar results were obtained when the subjects were challenged with the low dose of diflunisal (500 mg/day), although the magnitude of the changes were smaller. The interaction between indomethacin and diflunisal may be due to competition both at the metabolic (conjugation) and the excretory (tubular secretion) levels. When the subjects were given 50 mg indomethacin and diflunisal 1000 mg/day simultaneously, the achieved maximum plasma concentration of indomethacin (2.53 µg/ml) was comparable to that seen after 100 mg in the absence of diflunisal (3.1 µg/ml), but the AUC was greater (21.7 µg × h/ml vs 13.0 µg × h/ml). Adverse central nervous reactions were more frequent and more pronounced at higher plasma indomethacin concentrations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: diflunisal ; pharmacokinetics ; healthy volunteers ; kidney failure ; rheumatoid arthritis ; aged subjects
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The single-dose plasma kinetics of diflunisal was studied in healthy young and old subjects, in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, and in patients with renal failure. The plasma and urine kinetics of the glucuronidated metabolites of diflunisal were studied in the healthy elderly subjects and in the patients with renal failure. In addition, the multiple-dose plasma kinetics of diflunisal was assessed in healthy volunteers and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. After a single dose of diflunisal the terminal plasma half-life, mean residence time and apparent volume of distribution were higher in elderly subjects than in young adults. No difference was observed in any pharmacokinetic parameter between age-matched healthy subjects and patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The elimination half-life of unchanged diflunisal was correlated with the creatinine clearance (r=+0.89) and its apparent total body clearance exhibited linear dependence on creatinine clearance (r=+0.78). In patients with renal failure, the terminal plasma half-life and mean residence time of diflunisal were prolonged. The renal and apparent total body clearances were lower, the mean apparent volume of distribution was higher and the mean area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC) was greater in the renal failure patients than in controls. The plasma concentration of the glucuronidated metabolites rapidly rose to levels above those of unchanged drug in renal patients, whereas they were lower than those of unchanged diflunisal in controls. The AUC (0–96 h) of diflunisal glucuronides in the patients was four-times that in controls, and the terminal elimination half-life of the glucuronides was prolonged in them. The renal excretion and clearance of diflunisal glucuronides were reduced when renal function was impaired. After multiple dosing, the pre-dose steady-state plasma-concentration increased with decreasing creatinine clearance (r=-0.79). When the plasma concentration exceeded 200 µmol·1−1, the elimination half-life was doubled, due to partial saturation of diflunisal conjugation. This finding suggests that lower doses could be used in long-term treatment. Thus, old age and arthritic disease appear to have little influence on the kinetics of diflunisal in the absence of renal functional impairment. Ordinary doses can be given for short term treatment of elderly patients with or without RA. In patients with renal failure, however, reduced doses of diflunisal are recommended.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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