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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23 (2009): GB4034, doi:10.1029/2009GB003500.
    Description: Climate change is projected to significantly alter the delivery (stratification, boundary currents, aridification of landmasses, glacial melt) of iron to the Southern Ocean. We report the most comprehensive suite of biogeochemical iron budgets to date for three contrasting sites in subantarctic and polar frontal waters south of Australia. Distinct regional environments were responsible for differences in the mode and strength of iron supply mechanisms, with higher iron stocks and fluxes observed in surface northern subantarctic waters, where atmospheric iron fluxes were greater. Subsurface waters southeast of Tasmania were also enriched with particulate iron, manganese and aluminum, indicative of a strong advective source from shelf sediments. Subantarctic phytoplankton blooms are thus driven by both seasonal iron supply from southward advection of subtropical waters and by wind-blown dust deposition, resulting in a strong decoupling of iron and nutrient cycles. We discuss the broader global significance our iron budgets for other ocean regions sensitive to climate-driven changes in iron supply.
    Description: T.W. was supported by a BDI grant from CNRS and Région PACA, by CNRS PICS project 3604, and by the “Soutien à la mer” CSOA CNRS-INSU. P.W.B. was supported by the New Zealand FRST Coasts and Oceans OBI. This research was supported by the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Programme through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC (ACE CRC) and Australian Antarctic Science project 2720.
    Keywords: Iron ; Southern Ocean ; Biogeochemical budget ; Subantarctic ; Polar ; Australian sector
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2011. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of Elsevier B.V. for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Deep Sea Research Part II: Topical Studies in Oceanography 58 (2011): 2094-2112, doi:10.1016/j.dsr2.2011.05.027.
    Description: This paper presents iron (Fe) profiles in the upper 1000 m from nine short-term (transect) stations and three long-term (process) stations occupied in the Australian sector of the Southern Ocean during the SAZ-Sense expedition in austral summer (January–February) 2007. Strong vertical and horizontal gradients in Fe concentrations were observed between the 18 sampled profiles (i.e. 0.09–0.63 nmol/l dissolved Fe (dFe)). Average dFe concentrations in surface waters in the northern Sub-Antarctic Zone (SAZ-N) West (station P1) were 0.27±0.04 nmol/l. This is lower than in the SAZ-N East region (station P3 and around) where average dFe values in the mixed layer were 0.48±0.10 nmol/l. The Polar Front (PF) station (P2) exhibited the lowest average surface Fe values (i.e. 0.22±0.02 nmol/l). Iron concentrations in deep waters down to 1000 m were more uniform (0.25–0.37 nmol/l dFe), which is in accordance with values reported elsewhere in remote waters of the Southern Ocean, but lower than those observed in the North Atlantic and North Pacific basins. A strong decoupling was observed between dFe and nutrient cycles at all stations. Particulate Fe levels were generally very low for all SAZ stations (〈0.08 – 1.38 nmol/l), with higher values observed at stations collected near Tasmania and in the SAZ-N East region. The intrusion of subtropical waters, enriched with Fe from sediments or dust further north, is thought to mediate Fe input to the SAZ-N and STZ areas, while input from below would be the main source of Fe in the PF region. We applied the tracer Fe* (Fe*= [dFe]-RFe:P × [PO4 3-], where RFe:P is the algal uptake ratio) to estimate the degree to which the water masses were Fe limited. In this study, Fe* tended to be negative and decreased with increasing depths and latitude. Positive Fe* values, indicating Fe sufficiency, were observed in the (near-)surface waters collected in the SAZ-N East and near continental sources, where primary production was higher and ultimately limited by the lack of macro-nutrients, not Fe. Micro-organisms residing in the SAZ-N West and PF on the other hand experienced negative Fe*, indicating a strong co-limitation by low silicic acid concentration and Fe supply (and light in the case of PF).
    Description: This research was supported by the Belgian Federal Science Policy Office (contracts SD/CA/03A, OA/00/025), the Australian Government Cooperative Research Centres Program through the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems CRC (ACE CRC) and Australian Antarctic Science project #2720.
    Keywords: Iron ; Distributions ; Macro-nutrients ; Biogeochemistry ; Southern Ocean
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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  • 3
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    In:  [Talk] In: SOLAS - IGAC France join open meeting Chemistry, Transport and Biogeochemistry feedback: Frontiers in Chemistry, Physics and Biology, 29.-30.06.2011, Paris, France .
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Description: The deposition of atmospheric dust is one of the main external source to the ocean for elements abundant in crustal rocks. Once deposited the residence time of these elements in surface waters differs according to their chemical speciation and biological ultilization. In the present work we examined the temporal changes in the concentrations of Iron, Maganese and Aluminium within large mesocosms after the seeding with simulated aeolian dust of surface waters of the northwestern Mediterranean. Two artificial deposition events were performed during the course of this experiment: for each artificial Saharan dust fertilization to the mesocoms the changes in Mn, Fe and Al chemistry were followed over the following week. In this presentation, we will present results from this mesocosm experiment focusing on the similarities and differences between these 3 elements. This trace metal dataset makes a significant contribution to enhance our knowledge about the release of trace metals from Saharan dust in a low nutrient low chlorophyll area and the subsequent processes of biouptake and scavenging.
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 4
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    In:  [Talk] In: EGU General Assembly 2011, 03.-08.04.2011, Vienna, Austria .
    Publication Date: 2012-07-06
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    AGU (American Geological Union)
    In:  Geophysical Research Letters, 38 . L24601.
    Publication Date: 2017-06-20
    Description: Surface water distributions of dissolved Al (dAl) and dissolved Ti (dTi) were investigated along a meridional Atlantic transect and related to dust deposition estimates. In the zone of Saharan dust deposition, highest dAl concentrations occurred in the tropical salinity minimum and suggest increasing Al dissolution from Saharan aerosols with wet deposition. By contrast, the dTi distribution is not related to precipitation but agrees with the pattern of annual dust deposition. In the zone of Patagonian dust deposition, elevated dTi concentrations contrasted with decreased dAl concentrations, indicating excess dAl scavenging onto biogenic particles in surface waters. Estimated residence times range from months to years for dAl and are ∼10 times higher for dTi. This suggests that dAl reflects seasonal changes in dust deposition, while dTi is related to longer temporal scales. However, spatial variations in input and removal processes complicate the quantification of dust deposition from surface water concentrations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
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    Copernicus Publications (EGU)
    In:  Biogeosciences (BG), 8 (8). pp. 2107-2124.
    Publication Date: 2019-07-05
    Description: A significant decrease of dissolved iron (DFe) concentration has been observed after dust addition into mesocosms during the DUst experiment in a low Nutrient low chlorophyll Ecosystem (DUNE), carried out in the summer of 2008. Due to low biological productivity at the experiment site, biological consumption of iron can not explain the magnitude of DFe decrease. To understand processes regulating the observed DFe variation, we simulated the experiment using a one-dimensional model of the Fe biogeochemical cycle, coupled with a simple ecosystem model. Different size classes of particles and particle aggregation are taken into account to describe the particle dynamics. DFe concentration is regulated in the model by dissolution from dust particles and adsorption onto particle surfaces, biological uptake, and photochemical mobilisation of particulate iron. The model reproduces the observed DFe decrease after dust addition well. This is essentially explained by particle adsorption and particle aggregation that produces a high export within the first 24 h. The estimated particle adsorption rates range between the measured adsorption rates of soluble iron and those of colloidal iron, indicating both processes controlling the DFe removal during the experiment. A dissolution timescale of 3 days is used in the model, instead of an instantaneous dissolution, underlining the importance of dissolution kinetics on the short-term impact of dust deposition on seawater DFe. Sensitivity studies reveal that initial DFe concentration before dust addition was crucial for the net impact of dust addition on DFe during the DUNE experiment. Based on the balance between abiotic sinks and sources of DFe, a critical DFe concentration has been defined, above which dust deposition acts as a net sink of DFe, rather than a source. Taking into account the role of excess iron binding ligands and biotic processes, the critical DFe concentration might be applied to explain the short-term variability of DFe after natural dust deposition in various different ocean regions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    Elsevier
    In:  Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, 73 . pp. 127-139.
    Publication Date: 2016-11-02
    Description: This study investigates the oceanic behavior of the lithogenic trace elements Al and Ti in the upper 200 m of the Atlantic Ocean. The distribution of both metals in the dissolved and particulate phases was assessed along an E-W transect in the eastern tropical North Atlantic (December 2009) and along a meridional Atlantic transect (April-May 2010). The surface water concentrations of particulate and dissolved Al and Ti reflected the previously observed pattern of atmospheric inputs into the Atlantic Ocean. Subsurface minima at stations with pronounced fluorescence maxima were observed, suggesting a link between biological productivity and the removal of both dissolved and particulate Al and Ti. This may include uptake mechanisms, adsorption and aggregation processes on biogenic particle surfaces and the formation of large, fast sinking biogenic particles, e.g., fecal pellets. Residence times in the upper water column (100 m) of the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic were estimated to range in the order of days to weeks in the particulate phases (Al: 3-22 days, Ti: 4-37 days) and were 0.9-3.8 years for Al and 10-31 years for Ti in the dissolved phases. Longer residence times in both phases in the South Atlantic are consistent with lower biological productivity and decreased removal rates. In the upper water column, Al was predominantly present in the dissolved form, whereas Ti mostly occurred in the particulate form. Largest deviations in the partition coefficients between the particulate and dissolved phases were found in the surface waters, together with excess dissolved Al over Ti compared to the crustal source. This likely reflects elevated dissolution of Al compared to Ti from atmospheric mineral particles
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2012-02-23
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2012-09-24
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2012-12-14
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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