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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Oxford : Oxford University Press
    Call number: AWI G2-14-0056
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: 1 An introduction to Antarctic lakes. - 1.1 Introduction. - 1.2 History of Antarctic limnology and logistics. - 1.3 Climatic conditions in Antarctica. - 1.4 Glaciological history of Antarctica. - 1.5 Diversity of lakes. - 1.6 Lake types and geochemical conditions. - 1.6.1 Salinity. - 1.6.2 Redox conditions. - 1.6.3 Nutrient and organic carbon supply. - 1.6.4 Geochemical indicators of lake history. - 1.7 Geomorphology of Antarctic lakes. - 1.8 Antarctic lake biota. - 1.8.1 Archaea and Bacteria. - 1.8.2 Viruses. - 1.8.3 Protozoa. - 1.8.4 Algae. - 1.8.5 Rotifers. - 1.8.6 Crustaceans. - 1.8.7 Other invertebrates. - 1.9 Habitats in Antarctic lakes. - 2 Freshwater lakes. - 2.1 Introduction. - 2.2 Formation of freshwater lakes. - 2.3 Temperature and stratification. - 2.4 Water chernistry. - 2.5 The planktonic biota of freshwater lakes. - 2.5.1 Heterotrophic bacteria. - 2.5.2 Viruses. - 2.5.3 Protozoa. - 2.5.4 The phytoplankton. - 2.5.5 The zooplankton. - 2.6 Carbon cycling in the planktonic environment. - 2.6.1 Primary production. - 2.6.2 Bacterial production. - 2.6.3 Heterotrophic grazing. - 2.7 The benthic communities. - 2.7.1 Phototrophic benthic communities. - 2.7.2 Heterotrophic benthic communities. - 2.7.3 Carbon cycling in the benthos. - 3 Saline lakes. - 3.1 Introduction. - 3.2 Distribution of saline lakes in Antarctica. - 3.3 Formation of saline lakes. - 3.4 Patterns of stratification and temperature. - 3.5 Water chemistry. - 3.6 The planktonic biota of saline lakes. - 3.6.1 Heterotrophic Bacteria and Archaea. - 3.6.2 Photosynthetic bacteria. - 3.6.3 Viruses. - 3.6.4 Protozoa. - 3.6.5 Algae. - 3.6.6 Zooplankton. - 3.7 Carbon cycling in the plankton. - 3.7.1 Primary production. - 3.7.2 Bacterial production. - 3.7.3 Heterotrophic grazing and carbon cycling. - 3.8 The biota of saline Iake ice covers. - 3.9 The benthic community. - 3.10 Carbon cycling in the benthos. - 3.11 A unique Antarctic Iake - Lake Vida. - 4 Epishelf lakes. - 4.1 Introduction. - 4.2 Formation and physico/chemical characteristics of epishelf lakes. - 4.2.1 Geomorphology. - 4.2.2 Physico/chemical characteristics. - 4.3 The planktonic biota of epishelf lakes. - 4.4 Carbon cycling in the plankton of epishelf lakes. - 4.5 The benthic communities of epishelf lakes. - 5 Lakes and ponds on glaciers and ice shelves. - 5.1 Introduction. - 5.2 Supraglacial lakes. - 5.2.1 Types of cryolakes. - 5.2.2 The physical/chemical environment and biology of cryolakes. - 5.3 Ice shelf ponds and lakes. - 6 Subglacial lakes. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 Distribution and physiographic characteristics of subglacial lakes in Antarctica. - 6.3 Detailed studies of subglacial lakes. - 6.3.1 Lake Vostok. - 6.3.2 Lake Ellsworth. - 6.3.3 Lake Whillans. - 6.3.4 Hodgson Lake. - 6.4 Formation of subglacial lakes and hydrological conditions. - 6.5 Geochemical conditions in subglacial lakes. - 6.6 The biota of subglacial lakes. - 7 Conclusions and future directions. - 7.1 Antarctic lakes in a global context. - 7.2 Inter-annual variations and Ionger-term trends. - 7.3 The gaps in the data - the way forward. - 7.4 Future directions. - Glossary. - References. - Index.
    Description / Table of Contents: The Antarctic continent carries the greatest diversity of Iake environments on the planet: freshwater and saline lakes, tidal freshwater epishelf lakes, lakes on ice shelves and glacier surfaces, and over three hundred subglacial lakes; extraordinary ecosystems that have been separated from the atmosphere for up to millions of years. This book provides a unique and cutting edge synthesis of Antarctic limnology, drawing together current knowledge on geomorphology, morphometry, chemistry, community structure and function. lt emphasises throughout the value of these near-pristine ecosystems as barometers of climate change, showing how responsive and vulnerable they are to the indirect impacts of anthropogenic activity. Antarctic Lakes begins with an introduction to their physical, chemical, and biological characteristics, providing a basis for understanding the subsequent detailed chapters on different Iake types, and ends with a chapter considering the application of new technologies to polar limnology as well as identifying future research directions. This accessible text is suitable for both senior undergraduate and graduate students taking courses in Antarctic and polar limnology, and will also be of broad interest to researchers working in the areas of polar science, microbial ecology (and extremophiles), climatology, glaciology, and astrobiology.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: ix, 215 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    Edition: 1st ed.
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2019-01-10
    Description: Ice sheets are currently ignored in global methane budgets1,2. Although ice sheets have been proposed to contain large reserves of methane that may contribute to a rise in atmospheric methane concentration if released during periods of rapid ice retreat3,4, no data exist on the current methane footprint of ice sheets. Here we find that subglacially produced methane is rapidly driven to the ice margin by the efficient drainage system of a subglacial catchment of the Greenland ice sheet. We report the continuous export of methane-supersaturated waters (CH4(aq)) from the ice-sheet bed during the melt season. Pulses of high CH4(aq) concentration coincide with supraglacially forced subglacial flushing events, confirming a subglacial source and highlighting the influence of melt on methane export. Sustained methane fluxes over the melt season are indicative of subglacial methane reserves that exceed methane export, with an estimated 6.3 tonnes (discharge-weighted mean; range from 2.4 to 11 tonnes) of CH4(aq) transported laterally from the ice-sheet bed. Stable-isotope analyses reveal a microbial origin for methane, probably from a mixture of inorganic and ancient organic carbon buried beneath the ice. We show that subglacial hydrology is crucial for controlling methane fluxes from the ice sheet, with efficient drainage limiting the extent of methane oxidation5 to about 17 per cent of methane exported. Atmospheric evasion is the main methane sink once runoff reaches the ice margin, with estimated diffusive fluxes (4.4 to 28 millimoles of CH4 per square metre per day) rivalling that of major world rivers6. Overall, our results indicate that ice sheets overlie extensive, biologically active methanogenic wetlands and that high rates of methane export to the atmosphere can occur via efficient subglacial drainage pathways. Our findings suggest that such environments have been previously underappreciated and should be considered in Earth’s methane budget.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2019-01-02
    Description: The detection and monitoring of meltwater within firn presents a significant monitoring challenge. We explore the potential of small wireless sensors (ETracer+, ET+) to measure temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity and thus the presence or absence of meltwater within firn, through tests in the dry snow zone at the East Greenland Ice Core Project site. The tested sensor platforms are small, robust and low cost, and communicate data via a VHF radio link to surface receivers. The sensors were deployed in low-temperature firn at the centre and shear margins of an ice stream for 4 weeks, and a ‘bucket experiment’ was used to test the detection of water within otherwise dry firn. The tests showed the ET+ could log subsurface temperatures and transmit the recorded data through up to 150 m dry firn. Two VHF receivers were tested: an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) and a WinRadio. The ApRES can combine high-resolution imaging of the firn layers (by radio-echo sounding) with in situ measurements from the sensors, to build up a high spatial and temporal resolution picture of the subsurface. These results indicate that wireless sensors have great potential for long-term monitoring of firn processes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-12-23
    Description: Author Posting. © The Author(s), 2014. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here by permission of American Chemical Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Environmental Science & Technology 48 (2014): 14248–14257, doi:10.1021/es501732h.
    Description: Runoff from glaciers and ice sheets has been acknowledged as a potential source of bioavailable dissolved organic matter (DOM) to downstream ecosystems. This source may become increasingly significant as glacial melt rates increase in response to future climate change. Recent work has identified significant concentrations of bioavailable carbon and iron in Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) runoff. The flux characteristics and export of N-rich DOM are poorly understood. Here, we employed electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) to determine the elemental compositions of DOM molecules in supraglacial water and subglacial runoff from a large GrIS outlet glacier. We provide the first detailed temporal analysis of the molecular composition of DOM exported over a full melt season. We find that DOM pools in supraglacial and subglacial runoff are compositionally diverse and that N-rich material is continuously exported throughout the melt season as the snowline retreats further inland. Identification of protein-like compounds and a high proportion of N-rich DOM, accounting for 27-41% of the DOM molecules identified by ESI FT-ICR MS, may suggest a microbial provenance and high bioavailability of glacially-exported DOM to downstream microbial 16 communities.
    Description: This research was funded by the Natural Environment Research Council UK (NERC) grant NE/E004016/1 (to J. L. Wadham) and a NERC CASE studentship to E. C. Lawson (NERC DTG/GEOG SN1316.6525) co-sponsored by Dionex Corporation (part of Thermo Fisher Scientific). Support to J. L. Wadham was also provided by the Leverhulme Trust via a Phillip Leverhulme award and a Leverhulme Trust Research Fellowship. Support to M. P. Bhatia and E. B. Kujawinski was provided by a WHOI Clark Arctic Research Initiative Grant.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-04-20
    Description: This paper is not subject to U.S. copyright. The definitive version was published in Earth and Planetary Science Letters 462 (2017): 180-188, doi:10.1016/j.epsl.2016.12.039.
    Description: Water flow beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS) has been shown to include slow-inefficient (distributed) and fast-efficient (channelized) drainage systems, in response to meltwater delivery to the bed via both moulins and surface lake drainage. This partitioning between channelized and distributed drainage systems is difficult to quantify yet it plays an important role in bulk meltwater chemistry and glacial velocity, and thus subglacial erosion. Radon-222, which is continuously produced via the decay of 226Ra, accumulates in meltwater that has interacted with rock and sediment. Hence, elevated concentrations of 222Rn should be indicative of meltwater that has flowed through a distributed drainage system network. In the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012, we made hourly 222Rn measurements in the proglacial river of a large outlet glacier of the GrIS (Leverett Glacier, SW Greenland). Radon-222 activities were highest in the early melt season (10–15 dpm L−1), decreasing by a factor of 2–5 (3–5 dpm L−1) following the onset of widespread surface melt. Using a 222Rn mass balance model, we estimate that, on average, greater than 90% of the river 222Rn was sourced from distributed system meltwater. The distributed system 222Rn flux varied on diurnal, weekly, and seasonal time scales with highest fluxes generally occurring on the falling limb of the hydrograph and during expansion of the channelized drainage system. Using laboratory based estimates of distributed system 222Rn, the distributed system water flux generally ranged between 1–5% of the total proglacial river discharge for both seasons. This study provides a promising new method for hydrograph separation in glacial watersheds and for estimating the timing and magnitude of distributed system fluxes expelled at ice sheet margins.
    Description: U.S. National Science Foundation Arctic Natural Sciences Program (ANS-1256669); Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Arctic Research Initiative, Ocean Ventures Fund, and Ocean Climate Change Institute; United Kingdom Natural Environment Research Council studentship (NE/152830X/1); the Carnegie Trust, Edinburgh University Development Trust.
    Keywords: Radon ; Greenland ; Glacier ; Proglacial river ; Meltwater
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hatton, Jade; Hendry, Katharine R; Hawkings, Jonathan; Wadham, Jemma; Kohler, Tyler; Stibal, Marek; Beaton, Alexander; Bagshaw, Elizabeth; Telling, J (2019): Investigation of subglacial weathering under the Greenland Ice Sheet using silicon isotopes. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 247, 191-206, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gca.2018.12.033
    Publication Date: 2019-06-07
    Description: This data product contains dissolved and amorphous particulate silicon concentrations and isotopic compositions, and ancillary data (discharge, conductivity, suspended particulate matter, pH, major ion data) for glacial meltwaters collected from two glaciers in Greenland: Leverett Glacier (67 degrees N, 50 degrees W) and Kiattuut Sermiat (61 degrees N, 45 degrees W).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 6107 data points
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hatton, Jade; Hendry, Katharine R; Hawkings, Jonathan; Wadham, Jemma; Opfergelt, Sophie; Kohler, Tyler; Yde, Jacob; Stibal, Marek; Žárský, Jakub (2019): Silicon isotopes in Arctic and sub-Arctic glacial meltwaters: the role of the subglacial weathering in the silicon cycle. Proceedings of the Royal Society A-Mathematical Physical and Engineering Sciences, 475(2228), https://doi.org/10.1098/rspa.2019.0098
    Publication Date: 2019-10-07
    Description: This data product contains dissolved and amorphous particulate silicon concentrations and isotopic compositions, and ancillary data (discharge, conductivity, suspended particulate matter, pH, major ion data) for glacial meltwaters collected from Pan Arctic and Subarctic glacial catchments.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 529 data points
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  • 8
  • 9
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018
    Description: 〈div data-abstract-type="normal"〉〈p〉The detection and monitoring of meltwater within firn presents a significant monitoring challenge. We explore the potential of small wireless sensors (ETracer+, ET+) to measure temperature, pressure, electrical conductivity and thus the presence or absence of meltwater within firn, through tests in the dry snow zone at the East Greenland Ice Core Project site. The tested sensor platforms are small, robust and low cost, and communicate data via a VHF radio link to surface receivers. The sensors were deployed in low-temperature firn at the centre and shear margins of an ice stream for 4 weeks, and a ‘bucket experiment’ was used to test the detection of water within otherwise dry firn. The tests showed the ET+ could log subsurface temperatures and transmit the recorded data through up to 150 m dry firn. Two VHF receivers were tested: an autonomous phase-sensitive radio-echo sounder (ApRES) and a WinRadio. The ApRES can combine high-resolution imaging of the firn layers (by radio-echo sounding) with in situ measurements from the sensors, to build up a high spatial and temporal resolution picture of the subsurface. These results indicate that wireless sensors have great potential for long-term monitoring of firn processes.〈/p〉〈/div〉
    Print ISSN: 0022-1430
    Electronic ISSN: 1727-5652
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences
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