Chronic exposure to JP-8 and other kerosene-based petroleum distillates has been associated with hepatic, renal, neurologic, pulmonary, and immune toxicity. However, the effects of kerosene-type jet fuels on cellular homeostasis hitherto have not been reported. Fluorescence imaging using a Meridian Ultima laser scanning fluorescence microscope was used to evaluate the effect of JP-8 jet fuel on a communication competent rat liver cell line. Several endpoints of cellular function were measured including gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC), mitochondrial and plasma membrane potential (MMP and PMP, respectively), intracellular glutathione (GSH) concentration, glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Cells were treated with JP-8 (0.01 to 2% in ethanol (EtOH)) for the following time points: 1 h, 24 h, 48 h, and analysis immediately after addition of jet fuel. GJIC analyzed directly after addition of 1% JP-8 was reduced 4.9-fold relative to EtOH-dosed control groups and further reduction (12.6-fold) was observed in cells treated for 1 h. Moreover, GJIC was not recoverable in cells treated with 1% JP-8 for 1 h and subsequently washed and incubated in fresh medium for 1 h. Significant changes in GSH content and GST activity were observed in cells analyzed directly after addition of 1% JP-8. GSH content increased in cells treated for 1 h with less than 2% JP-8 whereas treatment with 2% JP-8 for 1 h resulted in a 50% reduction in intracellular GSH relative to EtOH-dosed controls. Cells treated with 1% JP-8 for 48 h exhibited changes in GSH levels. However, higher JP-8 concentrations exhibited more pronounced changes in GSH and GST, which led to suppression of GSH synthesis. ROS increased in a dose-responsive fashion at JP-8 concentrations up to 1%, but decreased to 80% of control values at 2% and 3% JP-8. A 25% reduction in PMP was observed in cells treated for 1 h with 1% JP-8. In contrast, cells treated for 48 h with 2% JP-8 exhibited a 25% increase when compared to control. No significant changes were noted in the 0.01 and 1% treatment groups. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in MMP or intracellular calcium concentrations in cells treated with 0.01 to 2% JP-8 for up to 48 h. In summary, the most significant effects observed in the present study which may contribute to the toxicity of JP-8 jet fuel in cultured rat liver cells include effects on GJIC, ROS production, and GSH depletion at high (i.e., greater than 2%) JP-8 concentrations.
Life Sciences (General)
JANNAF 18th Safety and Environmental Protection Subcommittee Meeting; 123-129; CPIA-Publ-698|Safety and Environmental Protection; May 08, 2000 - May 12, 2000; Cocoa Beach, FL; United States