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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2015-01-17
    Description: CD4 T cells promote innate and adaptive immune responses, but how vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells contribute to immune protection remains unclear. We evaluated whether induction of virus-specific CD4 T cells by vaccination would protect mice against infection with chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Immunization with vaccines that selectively induced CD4 T cell responses resulted in catastrophic inflammation and mortality after challenge with a persistent strain of LCMV. Immunopathology required antigen-specific CD4 T cells and was associated with a cytokine storm, generalized inflammation, and multi-organ system failure. Virus-specific CD8 T cells or antibodies abrogated the pathology. These data demonstrate that vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells in the absence of effective antiviral immune responses can trigger lethal immunopathology.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382081/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4382081/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Penaloza-MacMaster, Pablo -- Barber, Daniel L -- Wherry, E John -- Provine, Nicholas M -- Teigler, Jeffrey E -- Parenteau, Lily -- Blackmore, Stephen -- Borducchi, Erica N -- Larocca, Rafael A -- Yates, Kathleen B -- Shen, Hao -- Haining, W Nicholas -- Sommerstein, Rami -- Pinschewer, Daniel D -- Ahmed, Rafi -- Barouch, Dan H -- AI007245/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI030048/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI07387/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- P51 OD011132/OD/NIH HHS/ -- T32 AI007245/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI078526/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- U19 AI096040/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- Intramural NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Jan 16;347(6219):278-82. doi: 10.1126/science.aaa2148.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Laboratory of Parasitic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. ; Department of Microbiology and Institute for Immunology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, WHO Collaborating Centre for Vaccine Immunology, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. ; Department of Pathology and Immunology, WHO Collaborating Centre for Vaccine Immunology, University of Geneva, 1211 Geneva, Switzerland. Department of Biomedicine-Haus Petersplatz, Division of Experimental Virology, University of Basel, 4009 Basel, Switzerland. ; Emory Vaccine Center and Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA. ; Center for Virology and Vaccine Research, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Ragon Institute of MGH, MIT, and Harvard, Boston, MA 02114, USA. dbarouch@bidmc.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25593185" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adaptive Immunity ; Animals ; Antibodies, Viral/immunology ; Antigens, Viral/immunology ; Arenaviridae Infections/*immunology/virology ; CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology ; Cytokines/blood ; Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology ; Immune System Diseases/*etiology/immunology/pathology ; Immunologic Memory ; Inflammation/*etiology/immunology/pathology ; Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus/*immunology/physiology ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Multiple Organ Failure/etiology ; Vaccination ; Viral Load ; Viral Vaccines/*adverse effects/*immunology ; Virus Replication
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-10-17
    Description: The maintenance of immune homeostasis requires regulatory T cells (T(regs)). Given their intrinsic self-reactivity, T(regs) must stably maintain a suppressive phenotype to avoid autoimmunity. We report that impaired expression of the transcription factor (TF) Helios by FoxP3(+) CD4 and Qa-1-restricted CD8 T(regs) results in defective regulatory activity and autoimmunity in mice. Helios-deficient T(regs) develop an unstable phenotype during inflammatory responses characterized by reduced FoxP3 expression and increased effector cytokine expression secondary to diminished activation of the STAT5 pathway. CD8 T(regs) also require Helios-dependent STAT5 activation for survival and to prevent terminal T cell differentiation. The definition of Helios as a key transcription factor that stabilizes T(regs) in the face of inflammatory responses provides a genetic explanation for a core property of T(regs).〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627635/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4627635/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Kim, Hye-Jung -- Barnitz, R Anthony -- Kreslavsky, Taras -- Brown, Flavian D -- Moffett, Howell -- Lemieux, Madeleine E -- Kaygusuz, Yasemin -- Meissner, Torsten -- Holderried, Tobias A W -- Chan, Susan -- Kastner, Philippe -- Haining, W Nicholas -- Cantor, Harvey -- R01 AI037562/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI37562/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- New York, N.Y. -- Science. 2015 Oct 16;350(6258):334-9. doi: 10.1126/science.aad0616.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Division of Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. ; Bioinfo, Plantagenet, Canada. ; Institut de Genetique et de Biologie Moleculaire et Cellulaire (IGBMC), INSERM U964, CNRS UMR 7104, Universite de Strasbourg, 67404 Illkirch, France. Faculte de Medecine, Universite de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Pediatrics, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA. Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA, USA. ; Department of Cancer Immunology and Virology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, 450 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 02215, USA. Department of Microbiology and Immunobiology, Division of Immunology, Harvard Medical School, Boston MA. harvey_cantor@dfci.harvard.edu.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26472910" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Autoimmunity/genetics/*immunology ; CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/*immunology ; DNA-Binding Proteins/*biosynthesis/genetics ; Forkhead Transcription Factors/immunology ; Gene Expression ; Kidney/immunology ; Liver/immunology ; Lymphocyte Activation ; Mice ; Mice, Inbred C57BL ; Mice, Transgenic ; Pancreas/immunology ; STAT5 Transcription Factor/metabolism ; T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/*immunology ; Transcription Factors/*biosynthesis/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0036-8075
    Electronic ISSN: 1095-9203
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Computer Science , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-04-21
    Description: Our current understanding of immunology was largely defined in laboratory mice, partly because they are inbred and genetically homogeneous, can be genetically manipulated, allow kinetic tissue analyses to be carried out from the onset of disease, and permit the use of tractable disease models. Comparably reductionist experiments are neither technically nor ethically possible in humans. However, there is growing concern that laboratory mice do not reflect relevant aspects of the human immune system, which may account for failures to translate disease treatments from bench to bedside. Laboratory mice live in abnormally hygienic specific pathogen free (SPF) barrier facilities. Here we show that standard laboratory mouse husbandry has profound effects on the immune system and that environmental changes produce mice with immune systems closer to those of adult humans. Laboratory mice--like newborn, but not adult, humans--lack effector-differentiated and mucosally distributed memory T cells. These cell populations were present in free-living barn populations of feral mice and pet store mice with diverse microbial experience, and were induced in laboratory mice after co-housing with pet store mice, suggesting that the environment is involved in the induction of these cells. Altering the living conditions of mice profoundly affected the cellular composition of the innate and adaptive immune systems, resulted in global changes in blood cell gene expression to patterns that more closely reflected the immune signatures of adult humans rather than neonates, altered resistance to infection, and influenced T-cell differentiation in response to a de novo viral infection. These data highlight the effects of environment on the basal immune state and response to infection and suggest that restoring physiological microbial exposure in laboratory mice could provide a relevant tool for modelling immunological events in free-living organisms, including humans.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871315/" target="_blank"〉〈img src="https://static.pubmed.gov/portal/portal3rc.fcgi/4089621/img/3977009" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4871315/" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Beura, Lalit K -- Hamilton, Sara E -- Bi, Kevin -- Schenkel, Jason M -- Odumade, Oludare A -- Casey, Kerry A -- Thompson, Emily A -- Fraser, Kathryn A -- Rosato, Pamela C -- Filali-Mouhim, Ali -- Sekaly, Rafick P -- Jenkins, Marc K -- Vezys, Vaiva -- Haining, W Nicholas -- Jameson, Stephen C -- Masopust, David -- 1R01AI111671/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI075168/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI084913/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI111671/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01 AI116678/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI075168/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI084913/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- R01AI116678/AI/NIAID NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):512-6. doi: 10.1038/nature17655. Epub 2016 Apr 20.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Center for Immunology, Department of Microbiology and Immunology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA. ; Center for Immunology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55414, USA. ; Department of Pediatric Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, and Pediatric Hematology and Oncology, Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA. ; Department of Pathology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio 44106, USA.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27096360" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Adult ; Animal Husbandry/*methods ; Animals ; Animals, Laboratory/*immunology ; Animals, Wild/*immunology ; Cell Differentiation ; *Environment ; Environmental Exposure ; Female ; Humans ; Immune System/*immunology ; Immunity/*immunology ; Immunity, Innate/immunology ; Immunologic Memory ; Infant, Newborn ; Male ; Mice ; *Models, Animal ; Phenotype ; Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms ; T-Lymphocytes/cytology/immunology ; Virus Diseases/immunology/virology
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2012-02-01
    Description: When the host encounters a pathogen, the ensuing immune response involves a complex set of cellular responses distributed across many different types of cells. In T and B lymphocytes of the adaptive immune system, these responses include irreversible differentiation events that generate functionally specialized subpopulations of cells (1). Understanding how pathogens and vaccines influence the number, type, and efficacy of specific differentiation states in the T-cell compartment is a major goal in immunology. The study by Han et al. in PNAS (2) interrogates the functional response of individual T cells over time using a nanofluidic platform. Their experiments reveal that...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2015-01-15
    Description: The differentiation of effector CD8+ T cells is critical for the development of protective responses to pathogens and for effective vaccines. In the first few hours after activation, naive CD8+ T cells initiate a transcriptional program that leads to the formation of effector and memory T cells, but the regulation...
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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