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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Description: Pteropods are a group of holoplanktonic gastropods for which global biomass distribution patterns remain poorly resolved. The aim of this study was to collect and synthesize existing pteropod (Gymnosomata, Thecosomata and Pseudothecosomata) abundance and biomass data, in order to evaluate the global distribution of pteropod carbon biomass, with a particular emphasis on its seasonal, temporal and vertical patterns. We collected 25 902 data points from several online databases and a number of scientific articles. The biomass data has been gridded onto a 360 x 180° grid, with a vertical resolution of 33 WOA depth levels. Data has been converted to NetCDF format. Data were collected between 1951-2010, with sampling depths ranging from 0-1000 m. Pteropod biomass data was either extracted directly or derived through converting abundance to biomass with pteropod specific length to weight conversions. In the Northern Hemisphere (NH) the data were distributed evenly throughout the year, whereas sampling in the Southern Hemisphere was biased towards the austral summer months. 86% of all biomass values were located in the NH, most (42%) within the latitudinal band of 30-50° N. The range of global biomass values spanned over three orders of magnitude, with a mean and median biomass concentration of 8.2 mg C l-1 (SD = 61.4) and 0.25 mg C l-1, respectively for all data points, and with a mean of 9.1 mg C l-1 (SD = 64.8) and a median of 0.25 mg C l-1 for non-zero biomass values. The highest mean and median biomass concentrations were located in the NH between 40-50° S (mean biomass: 68.8 mg C l-1 (SD = 213.4) median biomass: 2.5 mg C l-1) while, in the SH, they were within the 70-80° S latitudinal band (mean: 10.5 mg C l-1 (SD = 38.8) and median: 0.2 mg C l-1). Biomass values were lowest in the equatorial regions. A broad range of biomass concentrations was observed at all depths, with the biomass peak located in the surface layer (0-25 m) and values generally decreasing with depth. However, biomass peaks were located at different depths in different ocean basins: 0-25 m depth in the N Atlantic, 50-100 m in the Pacific, 100-200 m in the Arctic, 200-500 m in the Brazilian region and 〉500 m in the Indo-Pacific region. Biomass in the NH was relatively invariant over the seasonal cycle, but more seasonally variable in the SH. The collected database provides a valuable tool for modellers for the study of ecosystem processes and global biogeochemical cycles.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2267.0 kBytes
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  • 2
  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Swan, Chantal; Vogt, Meike; Gruber, Nicolas; Laufkoetter, Charlotte (2015): A global seasonal surface ocean climatology of phytoplankton types based on CHEMTAX analysis of HPLC pigments. Deep Sea Research Part I: Oceanographic Research Papers, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsr.2015.12.002
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: Much advancement has been made in recent years in field data assimilation, remote sensing and ecosystem modeling, yet our global view of phytoplankton biogeography beyond chlorophyll biomass is still a cursory taxonomic picture with vast areas of the open ocean requiring field validations. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) pigment data combined with inverse methods offer an advantage over many other phytoplankton quantification measures by way of providing an immediate perspective of the whole phytoplankton community in a sample as a function of chlorophyll biomass. Historically, such chemotaxonomic analysis has been conducted mainly at local spatial and temporal scales in the ocean. Here, we apply a widely tested inverse approach, CHEMTAX, to a global climatology of pigment observations from HPLC. This study marks the first systematic and objective global application of CHEMTAX, yielding a seasonal climatology comprised of ~1500 1°x1° global grid points of the major phytoplankton pigment types in the ocean characterizing cyanobacteria, haptophytes, chlorophytes, cryptophytes, dinoflagellates, and diatoms, with results validated against prior regional studies where possible. Key findings from this new global view of specific phytoplankton abundances from pigments are a) the large global proportion of marine haptophytes (comprising 32 ± 5% of total chlorophyll), whose biogeochemical functional roles are relatively unknown, and b) the contrasting spatial scales of complexity in global community structure that can be explained in part by regional oceanographic conditions. These publicly accessible results will guide future parameterizations of marine ecosystem models exploring the link between phytoplankton community structure and marine biogeochemical cycles.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 131.0 kBytes
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2018-09-27
    Description: The planktonic haptophyte Phaeocystis has been suggested to play a fundamental role in the global biogeochemical cycling of carbon and sulphur, but little is known about its global biomass distribution. We have collected global microscopy data of the genus Phaeocystis and converted abundance data to carbon biomass using species-specific carbon conversion factors. Microscopic counts of single-celled and colonial Phaeocystis were obtained both through the mining of online databases and by accepting direct submissions (both published and unpublished) from Phaeocystis specialists. We recorded abundance data from a total of 1595 depth-resolved stations sampled between 1955-2009. The quality-controlled dataset includes 5057 counts of individual Phaeocystis cells resolved to species level and information regarding life-stages from 3526 samples. 83% of stations were located in the Northern Hemisphere while 17% were located in the Southern Hemisphere. Most data were located in the latitude range of 50-70° N. While the seasonal distribution of Northern Hemisphere data was well-balanced, Southern Hemisphere data was biased towards summer months. Mean species- and form-specific cell diameters were determined from previously published studies. Cell diameters were used to calculate the cellular biovolume of Phaeocystis cells, assuming spherical geometry. Cell biomass was calculated using a carbon conversion factor for Prymnesiophytes (Menden-Deuer and Lessard, 2000). For colonies, the number of cells per colony was derived from the colony volume. Cell numbers were then converted to carbon concentrations. An estimation of colonial mucus carbon was included a posteriori, assuming a mean colony size for each species. Carbon content per cell ranged from 9 pg (single-celled Phaeocystis antarctica) to 29 pg (colonial Phaeocystis globosa). Non-zero Phaeocystis cell biomasses (without mucus carbon) range from 2.9 - 10?5 µg l-1 to 5.4 - 103 µg l-1, with a mean of 45.7 µg l-1 and a median of 3.0 µg l-1. Highest biomasses occur in the Southern Ocean below 70° S (up to 783.9 µg l-1), and in the North Atlantic around 50° N (up to 5.4 - 103 µg l-1).
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3697.0 kBytes
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Brun, Philipp; Vogt, Meike; Payne, Mark R; Gruber, Nicolas; O'Brien, Colleen J; Buitenhuis, Erik Theodoor; Le Quéré, Corinne; Leblanc, Karine; Luo, Ya-Wei (2015): Ecological niches of open ocean phytoplankton taxa. Limnology and Oceanography, 60(3), 1020-1038, https://doi.org/10.1002/lno.10074
    Publication Date: 2019-04-30
    Description: This data contains realized ecological niche estimates of phytoplankton taxa within the mixed layer of the open ocean. The estimates are based on data from the MARine Ecosystem DATa (MAREDAT) initiative, and cover five phytoplankton functional types: coccolithophores (40 species), diatoms (87 species), diazotrophs (two genera), Phaeocystis (two species) and picophytoplankton (two genera). Considered as major niche dimensions were temperature (°C), mixed layer depth (MLD; m), nitrate concentration (µmoles/L), mean photosynthetically active radiation in the mixed layer (MLPAR; µmoles/m**2/s), salinity, and the excess of phosphate versus nitrate relative to the Redfield ratio (P*; µmoles/L). For each niche dimension at a time, conditions at presence locations of the taxa were contrasted with conditions in 12 000 randomly sampled points from the open ocean using MaxEnt models. We used the quartiles of the response curves of these models to parameterize realized niche centers and niche breadths: the median (q50) of the response curves was considered to be the niche center and the distance between the lower quartile (q25) and the upper quartile (q75) was used as a rough estimate of niche breadth. We only reported meaningful niche estimates, i.e., estimates based on MaxEnt models that perform significantly better than random, as indicated by an area under the curve (AUC) score significantly larger than 0.5.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 14.0 kBytes
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2015-04-30
    Description: The Southern Ocean is one of the key regions for global carbon uptake and it is under discussion how physical changes will alter its CO2 balance both directly and indirectly through changes in biological production. Here we analyse a suite of eight RCP8.5 model simulations until 2100 from the MAREMIP and CMIP5 model intercomparison projects on changes in export production and CO2 uptake. We explore how the counter-acting effects of stronger winds ("SAM signal", less stratification) and global warming (more stratification) affect CO2 fluxes in different models and different regions of the Southern Ocean. The models simulate a broad range of responses with no agreement on the dominance of the SAM or global warming signal or on nutrient or light as the dominant drivers for changes in export production. There is agreement on an increase in export production south of 58◦S and on a nutrient-driven decrease of export production in the region 30-44◦S (global warming signal). Based on a box-model, we can identify the most important drivers for the future CO2 uptake in the Southern Ocean where the pure increase of atmospheric CO2 has the largest effect, followed by the enhanced biological production and the larger effect of biological production on CO2 uptake at higher Revelle factor. The enhanced upwelling of carbon-rich deep water, and the effects of warming on the CO2 solubility and faster gas-exchange at higher wind-speeds are less important.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2015-11-06
    Description: We use a suite of eight ocean biogeochemical/ecological general circulation models from the Marine Ecosystem Model Intercomparison Project and Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 archives to explore the relative roles of changes in winds (positive trend of Southern Annular Mode, SAM) and in warming- and freshening-driven trends of upper ocean stratification in altering export production and CO2 uptake in the Southern Ocean at the end of the 21st century. The investigated models simulate a broad range of responses to climate change, with no agreement on a dominance of either the SAM or the warming signal south of 44°S. In the southernmost zone, i.e., south of 58°S, they concur on an increase of biological export production, while between 44 and 58°S the models lack consensus on the sign of change in export. Yet in both regions, the models show an enhanced CO2 uptake during spring and summer. This is due to a larger CO2(aq) drawdown by the same amount of summer export production at a higher Revelle factor at the end of the 21st century. This strongly increases the importance of the biological carbon pump in the entire Southern Ocean. In the temperate zone, between 30 and 44°S, all models show a predominance of the warming signal and a nutrient-driven reduction of export production. As a consequence, the share of the regions south of 44°S to the total uptake of the Southern Ocean south of 30°S is projected to increase at the end of the 21st century from 47 to 66% with a commensurable decrease to the north. Despite this major reorganization of the meridional distribution of the major regions of uptake, the total uptake increases largely in line with the rising atmospheric CO2. Simulations with the MITgcm-REcoM2 model show that this is mostly driven by the strong increase of atmospheric CO2, with the climate-driven changes of natural CO2 exchange offsetting that trend only to a limited degree (∼10%) and with negligible impact of climate effects on anthropogenic CO2 uptake when integrated over a full annual cycle south of 30°S.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-10-05
    Description: Accurate projections of marine particle export production (EP) are crucial for predicting the response of the marine carbon cycle to climate change, yet models show a wide range in both global EP and their responses to climate change. This is, in part, due to EP being the net result of a series of processes, starting with net primary production (NPP) in the sunlit upper ocean, followed by the formation of particulate organic matter and the subsequent sinking and remineralisation of these particles, with each of these processes responding differently to changes in environmental conditions. Here, we compare future projections in EP over the 21st century, generated by four marine ecosystem models under the high emission scenario Representative Concentra- tion Pathways (RCP) 8.5 of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), and determine the processes driving these changes. The models simulate small to modest decreases in global EP between −1 and −12 %. Models differ greatly with regard to the drivers causing these changes. Among them, the formation of particles is the most uncertain process with models not agreeing on either magnitude or the direction of change. The removal of the sinking particles by remineralisation is simulated to increase in the low and intermediate latitudes in three models, driven by either warming-induced increases in remineralisation or slower particle sinking, and show insignificant changes in the remaining model. Changes in ecosystem structure, particularly the relative role of diatoms matters as well, as diatoms produce larger and denser particles that sink faster and are partly protected from remineralisation. Also this controlling factor is afflicted with high uncertainties, particularly since the models differ already substantially with regard to both the initial (present-day) distribution of diatoms (between 11–94 % in the Southern Ocean) and the diatom contribution to particle formation (0.6–3.8 times higher than their contribution to biomass). As a consequence, changes in diatom concentration are a strong driver for EP changes in some models but of low significance in others. Observational and experimental constraints on ecosystem structure and how the fixed carbon is routed through the ecosystem to produce export production are urgently needed in order to improve current generation ecosystem models and their ability to project future changes.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2015-09-25
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/conferenceObject
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-04-24
    Description: With global climate change altering marine ecosystems, research on plankton ecology is likely to navigate uncharted seas. Yet, a staggering wealth of new plankton observations, integrated with recent advances in marine ecosystem modeling, may shed light on marine ecosystem structure and functioning. A EuroMarine foresight workshop on the “Impact of climate change on the distribution of plankton functional and phylogenetic diversity” (PlankDiv) identified five grand challenges for future plankton diversity and macroecology research: (1) What can we learn about plankton communities from the new wealth of high-throughput “omics” data? (2) What is the link between plankton diversity and ecosystem function? (3) How can species distribution models be adapted to represent plankton biogeography? (4) How will plankton biogeography be altered due to anthropogenic climate change? and (5) Can a new unifying theory of macroecology be developed based on plankton ecology studies? In this review, we discuss potential future avenues to address these questions, and challenges that need to be tackled along the way.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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