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  • 1
    Keywords: Electronics ; Materials ; Nanotechnology
    ISBN: 9783540328209
    Language: English
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Gills ; Tilapia mossambica ; Blood vessels ; Arteriovenous anastomoses ; Light microscopy ; Quantitative evaluation
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The non-respiratory vascular system of T. mossambica gill filaments was studied in serial longitudinal and cross sections. Comparatively few scattered vascular communications occur between the afferent filament artery and the central venous sinus (AVAaff). The efferent filament artery, however, is connected by regularly arranged anastomoses (AVAeff), directly, and sometimes indirectly via nutritive vessels, to the central sinus. These AVAeff are about as numerous as lamellae counted on one side of each filament, although they diminish slightly in number towards the filament base. The relation AVAeff to AVAaff was 17.6:1 in the distal and 17.8:1 in the basal filamental region, while in the tip region of 7 filaments 126 AVAeff but only 1 AVAaff were encountered. No direct connection between the lamellar lacunae and the central sinus was detected. According to these results, non-respiratory intrafilamental blood shunting appears unlikely. AVAeff are assumed to be the main route for blood entering the central venous sinus which would consequently flow into the branchial veins.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Cell & tissue research 167 (1976), S. 373-385 
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Gills ; Salmo gairdneri ; Specialized endothelia ; Arteriovenous anastomoses ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary The origin of arterio-venous anastomoses, connecting the efferent filament artery (EFA) with the central venous sinus (CVS) of gill filaments can be well discerned by scanning electron microscopy in the rainbow trout. Corresponding vessels between the afferent filament artery and the CVS could not be detected with the techniques applied. AVA-specific endothelial cells are characterized by their bulky shape and their microvillous surface. The general morphology of AVA's in Salmo gairdneri is very similar to that of AVA's in Tilapia mossambica (Vogel et al., 1974) but they are much longer in the trout. No filament whorls have been encountered in AVA endothelia of Salmo gairdneri.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4994
    Keywords: Stilbazolium betaine ; cis–trans isomerization ; metmyoglobin ; ligand
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The catalytic effect of metmyoglobin on the back thermal cis → trans isomerization reaction of stilbazolium betaine M is reported. This reaction shows substantial acceleration in the presence of metmyoglobin in comparison to the same reaction without the protein or in the presence of metmyoglobin cyanide. It is suggested that the observed thermal reaction acceleration may arise from the coordination of the protonated stilbazolium betaine molecule to the sixth ligand position of the heme iron and subsequent chromophore deprotonation or from the low polarity of the heme pocket microenvironment.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1432-1351
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Description / Table of Contents: Zusammenfassung 1. Rhinopoma hardwickei kommt in trockener Luft bei 35° C ohne Trinkwasser mit l g Mehlwürmern pro Tag (0,6 g freies Wasser) aus. (Beobachtungsdauer bis 17 Tage). 2. Rhinopoma scheidet unter normalen Bedingungen im Durchschnitt einen weniger konzentrierten Urin (2042 mOsm/kg H2O) aus, als Rhinolophus (2467 mOsm/ kg H2O). Im Gegensatz dazu beträgt die mittlere Urinosmolalität unter Durstbedingungen bei Rhinopoma 3722 mOsm/kg H2O, bei Rhinolophus 2980 mOsm/kg H2O. 3. Unter Wassermangelbedingungen steigt im Serum von Rhinopoma die Osmolalität geringgradig von 377 mOsm/kg H2O im normalen Zustand auf 401 mOsm/kg H2O an. Dabei ist nur die Serumkonzentration von Natrium, nicht jedoch von Kalium und Harnstoff signifikant erhöht. Das Serum von Rhinolophus zeigt im Durst dagegen einen erheblichen Konzentrationsanstieg (im Mittel von 413 auf 546 mOsm/kg H2O) mit signifikanter Steigerung der Natriummittelwerte von 173 auf 227 mVal/l und der Harnstoffmittelwerte von 208 auf 403 mg-%. 4. Der Vergleich mittlerer Serumkonzentrationen beider Gattungen im Normalzustand ergab eine höhere Osmolalität bei Rhinolophus, vor allem infolge höherer Natriumkonzentrationen. Die Harnstoffkonzentrationen unterschieden sich nicht signifikant. Unter Wassermangelbedingungen wird dieser Osmolalitätsunterschied wesentlich ausgeprägter durch jetzt auch signifikant höhere Harnstoffkonzentrationen bei Rhinolophus. 5. Zwischen Veränderungen der Kalium- und Harnstoffkonzentration und der Gesamtosmolalität des Urins deutet sich bei Rhinopoma und Rhinolophus eine Korrelation an. Die Natriumkonzentrationen im Urin erlauben keine derartige Annahme. 6. Die U/P osm-Werte unterscheiden sich bei beiden Tierarten im Normalzustand nicht signifikant, während im Durst Rhinopoma signifikant höhere Werte als Rhinolophus aufweist. Im Gegensatz zu Rhinopoma mit deutlichem Anstieg der U/P osm -Werte unter Wassermangelbedingungen (p〈 0,001) blieben diese bei Rhinolophus im Durst sogar etwas unter denen des Normalzustands, jedoch ohne signifikanten Unterschied (0,2〉p〉0,1).
    Notes: Summary 1. Rhinopoma is able to live without drinking water in a dry environment at a temperature of 35° C, when fed on 1 g mealworms/day (observed during 17 days). 2. Urine of normal Rhinopoma is on the average less concentrated (2042 mOsm/ kg H2O) than that of normal Rhinolophus (2467 mOsm/kg H2O). The mean urine concentration of thirsting Rhinopoma however is higher (3722 mOsm/kg H2O) than that of thirsting Rhinolophus (2980 mOsm/kg H2O). 3. The serum of dehydrated Rhinopoma is slightly more concentrated (401 mOsm/ kg H2O) than that of normal ones (377 mOsm/kg H2O). This is mainly due to a significant increase of the sodium concentration. Neither potassium nor urea concentrations increased significantly during dehydration. Serum of thirsting Rhinolophus on the other hand was considerably more concentrated (546 mOsm/kg H2O) than that of normal ones (413 mOsm/kg H2O). The concentrations of urea as well as sodium had then increased respectively from 208 to 403 mg-% and from 173 to 227 mVal/l. 4. The serum of normal Rhinolophus is more concentrated than that of normal Rhinopoma. This is due to a higher sodium concentration. Serum urea concentrations of normal Rhinopoma and normal Rhinolophus do not differ significantly. Mean serum concentration of dehydrated Rhinolophus is much higher than that of dehydrated Rhinopoma — urea as well as sodium being then more concentrated in Rhinolophus serum. 5. Changes in urine potassium and urea concentrations, not however in urine sodium concentrations of both animals, correlate with the corresponding urine osmolality. 6. There is no difference between the U/P osm ratio of Rhinopoma and that of Rhinolophus under normal conditions. During dehydration however, this ratio is higher in Rhinopoma than in Rhinolophus. U/P osm ratios of thirsting Rhinopoma were much higher than those of normal ones (p\s〈0.001). A comparison of thirsting Rhinolophus with those held under normal conditions indicates that the U/P osm ratio of the normal animals tends to be higher than that of thirsting ones. The difference however is not significant (0.2\s〉 p\s〉0.1)..
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1432-0878
    Keywords: Gills ; Tilapia mossambica ; Arterio-venous anastomoses ; Specialized endothelia ; Electron microscopy
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Arterio-venous anastomoses (AVA) in gill filaments of Tilapia mossambica exhibit a distinct polarity. Two different types of highly specialized endothelial cells, both of epitheloid shape, line these vessels: Type I cells, contacting the arterial lumen, are elongated and about two to three times as large as type II endothelial cells. Their surface is increased by tentacular protrusions which reach far into the arterial lumen. Filament whorls forming tubelike structures with centrally located glycogen granules are abundant in these cells. Type II endothelial cells are located proximal to the central venous sinus (CVS). Their less abundant and more electron dense cytoplasm is free of filament whorls. There are also intermediate cell forms at approximately the middle of each anastomosis. Short cell processes protrude from all endothelial cell types into the AVA lumen. Outside the indistinct vascular basement lamina, a layer of cover cells tightly envelopes the AVA. These cells are, however, absent around the part of the AVA adjacent to the CVS. Here the endothelial cells are in immediate contact with the interstitium. Endothelial cells sheathed by cover cells reach the interstitium through basal foot processes. Nerve fibre bundles regularly come into close contact with the AVAs. Possible functions of the AVAs, including osmoreception are discussed.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Chemical Physics Letters 163 (1989), S. 555-559 
    ISSN: 0009-2614
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Thin Solid Films 132 (1985), S. 205-219 
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Thin Solid Films 159 (1988), S. 73-81 
    ISSN: 0040-6090
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0167-4838
    Keywords: (T. marmorata) ; Calcium binding ; Calelectrin ; Electric organ ; Phospholipid binding
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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