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  • 1
    ISSN: 0301-0104
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
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  • 3
    ISSN: 0021-9991
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Computer Science , Physics
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: radio-iodinated fatty acids ; backdiffusion ; heart ; normal ; canine
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Under normal and ischemic conditions backdiffusion of radiolabeled non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) has been demonstrated. In the fasted normal canine heart the extraction fraction (EF) during interventions with glucose or lactate loading, vasodilation, and metabolic level augmentation was determined, and compared with the control EF. Backdiffusion alterations were deduced from the EF changes. After iv injection of 17-iodo-131 heptadecanoic acid (IHDA), 11 blood samples were drawn from aorta and coronary sinus in a time period of 60 minutes. In the control and vasodilation group the EF slowly decreased from 40 to 10%. In contrast, the EF in the noradrenaline group was constant. During glucose and lactate infusion the EF became negative within 10 min and remained negative. These results suggest that during physiological circumstances backdiffusion is determined by the metabolic level of the heart and its substrate availability.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: Iodinated fatty acids ; dog heart metabolism ; myocardial distribution of fatty acids
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary Radioiodinated free fatty acids have been developed to study myocardial metabolism non-invasively in man. In the present study the distribution of radiolabeled lipids in the myocardium and in arterial and coronary sinus blood was evaluated following injection of three commonly used iodinated fatty acids in fasted (n = 5) and lactate loaded (n = 3) dogs. Five minutes after simultaneous i.v. injection of radioiodinated 17-I-heptadecanoic acid (IHDA),15-(p-I-phenyl) pentadecanoic acid (IPPA) and 15-(p-I-phenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPPA) a biopsy specimen and samples of arterial and coronary sinus blood were taken. After extraction and TLC the relative distribution of radioactivity in the aqueous phase (containing the oxidation products), pellet and organic phase was calculated. The organic phase was further divided into phospholipids, diglycerides, free fatty acids, triglycerides and cholesterolesters. Seventy two percent of IHDA was oxidized, 36% of IPPA and 7% of DMIPPA. The organic phase consisted primarily of triglycerides and phospholipids. The ratios of triglycerides to phospholipids were about the same for IHDA, IPPA and DMIPPA (0.58, 0.65 and 0.50, respectively). Free IHDA in tissue samples was low (4%) and elevated for IPPA and DMIPPA, (17% and 37%). During lactate loading triglycerides were higher for all three fatty acids. For IHDA and IPPA this increase was paralleled by a decrease in the aqueous phase, in case of DMIPPA the aqueous phase remained the same. Five minutes after injection most of the organic phase of both arterial and coronary sinus blood consisted of the injected fatty acids, the aqueous phase contained oxidation products. There were only minor differences during lactate loading. During the evaluation of scintigraphic patterns of the radioiodinated fatty acids under normal conditions (eg at rest) and during elevated lactate levels (eg during exercise) the differences in distribution must therefore be considered.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-4919
    Keywords: normal canine myocardium ; radioiodinated fatty acids ; phospholipid distribution
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the phospholipid distribution of radioiodinated 17-iodoheptadecanoic acid (IHDA), 15-(p-iodophenyl)pentadecanoic acid (p-IPPA) and 15-(p-iodophenyl)-3,3-dimethylpentadecanoic acid (DMIPPA) under normoxic conditions and to compare these data with the fatty acid composition of the phospholipid classes. After simultaneous i.v. injection of the radioiodinated fatty acids (1-123-IHDA; 1-131-p-IPPA; 1-125 DMIPPA) in open-chest dogs seven myocardial biopsies were taken over 40 min (n = 26). After lipid extraction of the biopsies the organic phase was analyzed for both neutral and polar lipids by two different TLC systems. The following polar lipid fractions were analyzed: lysophopshatidylcholine (LPC), sphingomyelin (SPH), phosphatidy1choline (PC; lecithin), phosphatidylinositol (PI), phosphatidylserine (PS), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), diphosphatidylglycerol (DPG; cardiolipin) and neutral lipids. Fractions were counted in a gamma well counter and corrected for cross-over and recovery. Results of the polar phospholipids analysis showed that IHDA has the highest incorporation into the phospholipids. The IHDA was mainly incorporated into PI (45.6%) followed by PC (30.9%), PE (14.0%) and PS (5.6%). The p-IPPA was predominantly incorporated incorporated into PC (37.2%), followed by PS (20.1%) and PE (13.7%). In contrast to IHDA, incorporation of p-IPPA into PI was small (6.4%). The DMIPPA analogue was incorporated into phopsholipids to only a very small degree, compared to IHDA and p-IPPA. PS (27.4%) was the only considerable phospholipid fraction into which DMIPPA was incorporated. The results clearly demonstrated that these radioiodinated fatty acid analogues have entirely different patterns of phospholipid incorporation. Major resemblances have been found between the incorporation into phospholipids of IHDA and the phospholipid distribution of the natural counterpart: stearic acid. The p—IPPA phospholipid incorporation only partly resembles the phospholipid distribution of palmitic acid. DMIPPA is because of its modified structure, incorporated into phospholipids to a low extent, mainly into PS. (Mol Cell Biochem116: 79–87, 1992)
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-9699
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The mechanism of starch degradation by the fungus Trichoderma viride was studied in strain CBS 354.44, which utilizes glucose, starch and dextrins but is unable to assimilate maltose. It was shown that the amylolytic enzyme system is completely extracellular, equally well induced by starch, amylose or amylopectin and that it consists mainly of enzymes of the glucoamylase type which yield glucose as the main product of starch hydrolysis. Small amounts of α-amylase are produced also. The enzymes produced in starch cultures degrade starch, amylose and amylopectin equally well. Enzyme synthesis in starch media takes place to a considerable extent after exhaustion of the carbon source when maximum growth has been attained. Low-molecular dextrins are degraded by extracellular enzymes of the glucoamylase type. These enzymes are produced in media containing starch or dextrins. Maltotriose is consumed for only one third leaving maltose in the culture filtrate. Maltose is hardly attacked and hardly induces any amylolytic enzyme activity. No stable α-glucosidase appears to be produced.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Tetrahedron 40 (1984), S. 991-997 
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 0040-4020
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-08-27
    Description: As a dynamic screening tool for a high-salinity oilfield (186 g/L), anaerobic sandpacks were established to simulate Microbial Enhanced Oil Recovery (MEOR) under defined laboratory conditions. Glass beads, quartz sand or crushed reservoir rock were used to produce porous media which varied in permeability, wettability, homogeneity and geochemistry. In total, 14 sandpacks were flooded with oil and inoculated with indigenous fermentative bacteria of the order Halanaerobiales. After waterflooding, these were treated with nutrients in different injection scenarios during which incremental oil recovery, permeability, microbial activity and produced metabolites were measured. Our results indicate that the efficiency of MEOR is dependent on the type of porous medium used: Both glass beads and outcrop quartz sand were found to be no suitable analogue to reservoir material because not all potential MEOR effects were accounted for. MEOR was least efficient in quartz sandpacks with a recovery factor of 7.0 ± 1.7% with respect to the original oil in place (IRFOOIP), attributed mainly to fluid-fluid interactions. In sandpacks with reservoir rock, wettability alteration, matrix dissolution and bioplugging were additional MEOR mechanisms and resulted in an incremental recovery which was almost three-fold higher compared to pure quartz sandpacks (IRFOOIP = 23.2 ± 6.4%). Bioplugging was not detected in sandpacks with a permeability of 8–10 D, although cell retention was observed. Mean pore sizes of these sandpacks were calculated to be in the range of 100 μm, thus considered to be too large to allow for significant plugging. Our findings support the use of MEOR as potential tertiary recovery method but also emphasize the importance of carefully designing laboratory experiments. We argue that porous medium properties such as permeability, pore size, wettability and mineralogy play a crucial role during dynamic MEOR feasibility studies, because they directly influence incremental recovery.
    Type: info:eu-repo/semantics/article
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