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  • 1
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Gas chromatography ; Liquid chromatography ; Thermodynamic equilibria ; Solution and adsorption thermodynamics ; Gas adsorption isotherms
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary After a brief recall of the chromatographic principles, the different applications of gas chromatographic measurements of thermodynamic equilibria were reviewed. Gas and liquid chromatographies are now well known and elegant methods for measuring the physicochemical properties and phase equilibrium thermodynamic constants. Although fundamentally a dynamical method and mostly known as a powerful separation technique, chromatography can be schematized by a sucession of equilbria of a chemical species partitioning between a mobile phase and a fixed liquid or solid stationary phase. It can be operated in either infinite dilution or finite concentration conditions and permits to collect a large number of data for calculating molecular interactions for solutes which are either rare or available at the trace level. Gas chromatography permits the measurement of gas adsorption isotherm, gas-liquid equilibria, molecular diffusion and interaction virials. The modelization of successive partition equuilibria occuring in the chromatographic column leads to rather simple expression of differential enthalpy, entropy, free energy of adsorption or solution, variation of heat capacity, complexation constant, second virial coefficients, gas-solid and gasliquid isotherm and also binary or ternary equilibria. The possibilities of High Performance-Liquid Chromatography to investigate adsorption from solutions and chemical equilibria are also discussed.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1612-1112
    Keywords: Anion exchange chromatography ; Protein separation ; Non-porous support ; Polymeric stationary phase
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Summary The adsorbed coating technology using various vinylpyrrolidone-vinylimidazole copolymer compositions was carried out on 1.7 μm non-porous monodisperse silica. It was shown that the retention properties and the loading capacity for bovine serum albumin (BSA) increases with the amount of vinylimidazole in the copolymer composition. The retention behavior of various proteins as a function of the salt composition in the eluent has been applied to find the optimal conditions for the synthesis of the anion-exchange stationary phase. The suitability of these supports for the fast separation of biological molecules is demonstrated. The best resolution and the highest speed in protein analysis was obtained by using an anion exchanger of low capacity.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1435-1536
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Solar physics 40 (1975), S. 69-86 
    ISSN: 1573-093X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Four consecutive years of a quasi-continuous survey of the solar Lα line are presented. Absolute calibration and aging correction are evaluated producing higher quality measurements which are: -the total Lα flux, -the central Lα flux, -the blue wing flux at 0.33 Å from the center, -the slope of the blue wing at the same location. Empirical laws are deduced from this large amount of data giving a relation between these different parameters and the flux integrated over the whole line. Furthermore, other empirical laws are obtained between the total Lα flux and two solar activity indices. These relations give a possibility of evaluating the solar Lα flux even when no observation is available and, as previously found by Prinz (1974), show that to a first approximation the solar Lα flux is composed of a quiet and of an active component. The active component changes with the 27 days period; the quiet one with the 11 yr solar cycle.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Space science reviews 84 (1998), S. 297-308 
    ISSN: 1572-9672
    Keywords: Deuterium ; Interstellar Abundance ; Cosmology
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract An accurate measurement of the primordial value of D/H would provide one of the best tests of nucleosynthesis models for the early Universe and the baryon density. Such evaluations have been traditionally made using present estimations of the deuterium abundance in the interstellar medium, extrapolated backwards in time with the use of galactic evolution models. Direct estimations of the primordial deuterium abundance have been carried out only recently in QSOs absorbers at high redshift. We will summarize galactic observations of deuterium and suggest that, perhaps, a single D/H value for the interstellar medium is not representative. These evaluations mainly came from observations completed in the far UV with first the Copernicus satellite over the Lyman lines series followed then by H and D Lyman-alpha lines observations with both the IUE and the GHRS on the Hubble Space Telescope. We discuss different known systematics and show that the situation is not yet clear. It is not possible today to claim that we know "the" D/H value in the interstellar medium, if any. Overall and in the context of additional D observations made in the solar system, we conclude that the actual evolution of deuterium from Big-Bang nucleosynthesis to now is not yet understood. More observations, recently made with IMAPS (the Interstellar Medium Absorption Profile Spectrograph) and hopefully to be made with FUSE (the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer to be launched in the fall of 1998), at higher spectral resolution or in many different galactic sites are certainly needed to help us reach a better global view of the evolution of that key element, and thus better constrain any evaluation of its primordial abundance.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Springer
    Boundary layer meteorology 25 (1983), S. 229-243 
    ISSN: 1573-1472
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An attempt is made, for an anticyclonic stable situation in the atmospheric boundary layer during November 1978, to estimate the dissipation length. The turbulent dissipation and the turbulent kinetic energy, as measured on a 100 m high mast, exhibit large variability, due to the sporadic turbulent structure of the stable layer, and associated variability of the Richardson number. A comparison with different parameterizations of the turbulent dissipation rate allows a validation of these parameterizations.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Repeated spectroscopic observations ofβ Pictoris have been performed since 1985 and revealed the presence, in many metallic lines likeCa II, Mg II, Fe II, ..., of strong sporadic circumstellar absorption, redshifted by tens to hundreds of km s−1 with respect to the star, and highly time-variable (time-scales of days or hours). We have tentatively interpreted these variable events as the spectral signature of infalling cometary-like bodies, when evaporating in the vicinity of the star. This scenario has been furthermore theoretically studied, and we showed that it could indeed explain correctly the observations with their peculiar characteristics, like (1) the behavior difference between visible and UV lines, (2) the unusual line ratios, (3) the surprising presence of Al III absorption lines. Constraints deduced from both observational data and theoretical study allowed us to suggest that a planet within the disk could be responsible, by perturbations, of this high rate infall of small bodies towards the star (〉 100 per year).
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The inner regions of the circumstellar disk aroundβ Pictoris might be dust-free due to a possible planet which may have cleared up dust particles. We present a new observational technique based on the use of an anti-blooming CCD in order to directly image this zone. The structure of the disk is revealed down to 2 arcsec from the star (30 AU). We show that theβ Pic disk brightness is neutral inV, R, andI C , but drops down when going inward inB, possibly related to a change in the dust composition. Also, a slight disk asymmetry is present but inverted from the outer to the inner zones.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-0816
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mathematics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-946X
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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