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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2002-01-01
    Description: The northern Arabian Sea is at present characterized by a pronounced oxygen minimum zone (OMZ) with oxygen concentrations reaching values as low as 2 {micro}M between 150 and 1250 m. This intense mid-water OMZ results from high annual organic particle fluxes and a moderate rate of thermocline ventilation. Sediment studies have shown that the intensity of the northern Arabian Sea OMZ has fluctuated on Milankovitch and sub-Milankovitch time scales, in conjunction with changes in either surface water productivity or thermocline ventilation. Here we evaluate the role of convective mixing in the periodical breakdown of the OMZ by reconstructing the density gradient for periods showing a well-ventilated water column. For this reason we reconstructed sea surface temperatures and salinities for the last 70 ka based on alkenone thermometry and {delta}18O analyses on planktic and benthic foraminifers. For the studied time span thermocline ventilation by intermediate water formation in the northern Arabian Sea is a viable mechanism to explain observed fluctuations in the intensity of the OMZ. We postulate that the necessary decrease in the vertical density gradient during well-ventilated periods resulted from intensified winter monsoonal winds in combination with effects caused by glacio-eustacy.
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  • 2
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 339: 11-36.
    Publication Date: 2010-09-09
    Description: The colonization of land required new strategies for safe gamete/diaspore dispersal, and to cope with desiccation, harmful radiation, fire and gravity. Accordingly, the morphology, behaviour and physiology of the organisms changed. Here, we explore to what extent physiological adaptations, reflected in the molecular content of the sediments, add to our understanding of the terrestrialization. Many compounds considered characteristic of land organisms do not provide valuable information from the fossil record since (1) they were not preserved; (2) they occur or correspond to substances that evolved prior to the terrestrialization (e.g. cutan vs. algaenan, cellulose); or (3) they have been changed diagenetically and/or catagenetically. The latter leads to geo(macro)molecules without a chemical fingerprint relating them to their original bio(macro)molecules despite, sometimes, excellent morphological preservation of the organic remains. Nevertheless, some molecular markers and their stable isotopes provide independent information on the terrestrialization process. The odd predominance of n-alkane surface waxes is a feature already apparent in early land plants and could, with caution, be used as such. Furthermore, fossil terpenoids and their derivatives are valuable for reconstructing the evolution of major plant groups. The radiation of the phenylpropanoid pathway with for example, sporopollenin and lignin seems to be closely related to the evolution of land plants.
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  • 3
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Becker, Kevin W; Lipp, Julius S; Versteegh, Gerard J M; Wörmer, Lars; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe (2015): Rapid and simultaneous analysis of three molecular sea surface temperature proxies and application to sediments from the Sea of Marmara. Organic Geochemistry, 85, 42-53, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2015.04.008
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Reconstructing ocean temperature values is a major target in paleoceanography and climate research. However, most temperature proxies are organism-based and thus suffer from an "ecological bias". Multiproxy approaches can potentially overcome this bias but typically require more investment in time and resources, while being susceptible to errors induced by sample preparation steps necessary before analysis. Three lipid-based temperature proxies are widely used: UK'37 (based on long chain alkenones from phytoplanktonic haptophytes), TEX86 [based on glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) from pelagic archaea] and LDI (based on long chain diols from phytoplanktonic eustigmatophytes). So far, separate analytical methods, including gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC), have been used to determine these proxies. Here we present a sensitive method for determining all three in a single normal phase high performance LC-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mass spectrometry (NP-HPLC-APCI-MS) analysis. Each of the long chain alkenones and long chain diols was separated and unambiguously identified from the accurate masses and characteristic fragmentation during multiple stage MS analysis (MS2). Comparison of conventional GC and HPLC-MS methods showed similar results for UK'37 and LDI, respectively, using diverse environmental samples and an Emiliania huxleyi culture. Including the three sea surface temperature (SST) proxies; the NP-HPLC-APCI-MS method in fact allows simultaneous determination of nine paleoenvironmental proxies. The extent to which the ecology of the source organisms (ecological bias) influences lipid composition and thereby the reconstructed temperature values was demonstrated by applying the new method to a sediment core from the Sea of Marmara, covering the last 21 kyr BP. Reconstructed SST values differed considerably between the proxies for the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and the period of Sapropel S1 formation at ca. 10 kyr BP, whereas the trends during the late Holocene were similar. Changes in the composition of alkenone-producing species at the transition from the LGM to the Bølling/Allerød (B/A) were inferred from unreasonably high UK'37-derived SST values (ca. 20 °C) during the LGM. We ascribe discrepancies between the reconstructed temperature records during S1 deposition to habitat change, e.g. a different depth due to changes in nutrient availability.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 3 datasets
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  • 4
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Basse, Andreas; Zhu, Chun; Versteegh, Gerard J M; Fischer, Gerhard; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Mollenhauer, Gesine (2014): Distribution of intact and core tetraether lipids in water column profiles of suspended particulate matter off Cape Blanc, NW Africa. Organic Geochemistry, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.orggeochem.2014.04.007
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: In the reconstruction of sea surface temperature (SST) from sedimentary archives, secondary sources, lateral transport and selective preservation are considered to be mainly negligible in terms of influencing the primary signal. This is also true for the archaeal glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (GDGTs) that form the basis for the TEX86 SST proxy. Our samples represent four years variability on a transect off Cape Blanc (NW Africa). We studied the subsurface production, vertical and lateral transport of intact polar lipids and core GDGTs in the water column at high vertical resolution on the basis of suspended particulate matter (SPM) samples from the photic zone, the subsurface oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), nepheloid layers (NL) and the water column between these. Furthermore we compared the water column SPM GDGT composition with that in underlying surface sediments. This is the first study that reports TEX86 values from the precursor intact polar lipids (IPLs) associated with specific head groups (IPL -specific TEX86). We show a clear deviation from the sea surface GDGT composition in the OMZ between 300 and 600 m. Since neither lateral transport nor selective degradation provides a satisfactory explanation for the observed TEX-derived temperature profiles with a bias towards higher temperatures for both core- and IPL -specific TEX86 values, we suggest that subsurface in situ production of archaea with a distinct relationship between lipid biosynthesis and temperature is the responsible mechanism. However, in the NW-African upwelling system the GDGT contribution of the OMZ to the surface sediments does not seem to affect the sedimentary TEX86 as it shows no bias and still reflects the signal of the surface waters between 0 and 60 m.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 5
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Zhu, Chun; Wakeham, Stuart G; Elling, Felix J; Basse, Andreas; Mollenhauer, Gesine; Versteegh, Gerard J M; Könneke, Martin; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe (2016): Stratification of archaeal membrane lipids in the ocean and implications for adaptation and chemotaxonomy of planktonic archaea. Environmental Microbiology, 18(12), 4324-4336, https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13289
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Membrane lipids of marine planktonic archaea have provided unique insights into archaeal ecology and paleoceanography. However, past studies of archaeal lipids in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments mainly focused on a small class of fully saturated glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) homologues identified decades ago. The apparent low structural diversity of GDGTs is in strong contrast to the high diversity of metabolism and taxonomy among planktonic archaea. Furthermore, adaptation of archaeal lipids in the deep ocean remains poorly constrained. We report the archaeal lipidome in SPM from diverse oceanic regimes. We extend the known inventory of planktonic archaeal lipids to include numerous unsaturated archaeal ether lipids (uns-AELs). We further reveal i) different thermal regulations and polar headgroup compositions of membrane lipids between the epipelagic (〈= 100 m) and deep (〉 100 m) populations of archaea; ii) stratification of unsaturated GDGTs with varying redox conditions; and iii) enrichment of tetra-unsaturated archaeol and fully saturated GDGTs in epipelagic and deep oxygenated waters, respectively. Such stratified lipid patterns are consistent with the typical distribution of archaeal phylotypes in marine environments. We thus provide an ecological context for GDGT-based paleoclimatology and bring about the potential use of uns-AELs as biomarkers for planktonic Euryarchaeota. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 9851 data points
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  • 6
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Supplement to: Hoefs, Marcel JL; Versteegh, Gerard J M; Rijpstra, W Irene C; de Leeuw, Jan W; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S (1998): Postdepositional oxic degradation of alkenones: Implications for the measurement of palaeo sea surface temperatures. Paleoceanography, 13(1), 42-49, https://doi.org/10.1029/97PA02893
    Publication Date: 2020-01-17
    Description: Free and 'bound' long-chain alkenones (C37:2 and C37:3) in oxidized and unoxidized sections of four organic matter-rich Pliocene and Miocene Madeira Abyssal Plain turbidites (one from Ocean Drilling Program site 951B and three from site 952A) were analyzed to determine the effect of severe post depositional oxidation on the value of Uk'37. The profiles of both alkenones across the redox boundary show a preferential degradation of the C37:3 compared to the C37:2 compound. Because of the high initial Uk'37 values and the way of calculating the Uk'37 this degradation hardly influences the Uk'37 profiles. However, for lower Uk'37 values, measured selective degradation would increase Uk'37 up to 0.17 units, equivalent to 5°C. For most of the Uk'37 band-width, much smaller degradation already increases Uk'37 beyond the analytical error (0.017 units). Consequently, for interpreting the Uk'37 record in terms of past sea surface temperatures, selective degradation needs serious consideration.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 2 datasets
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-11-02
    Description: A valid assessment of selective aerobic degradation on organic matter (OM) and its impact on OM-based proxies is vital to produce accurate environmental reconstructions. However, most studies investigating these effects suffer from inherent environmental heterogeneities. In this study, we used surface samples collected along two meter-scale transects and one longer transect in the northeastern Arabian Sea to constrain initial OM heterogeneity, in order to evaluate selective aerobic degradation on temperature, productivity and alteration indices at the sediment-water interface. All of the studied alteration indices, the higher plant alkane index, alcohol preservation index, and diol oxidation index, demonstrated that they are sensitive indicators for changes in the oxygen regime. Several export production indices, a cholesterol-based stanol/stenol index and dinoflagellate lipid- and cyst-based ratios, showed significant (more than 20%) change only over the lateral oxygen gradients. Therefore, these compounds do not exclusively reflect surface water productivity, but are significantly altered after deposition. Two of the proxies, glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether-based TEX86 sea surface temperature indices and indices based on phytol, phytane and pristane, did not show any trends related to oxygen. Nevertheless, unrealistic sea surface temperatures were obtained after application of the TEX86, TEX86L, and TEX86H proxies. The phytol-based ratios were likely affected by the sedimentary production of pristane. Our results demonstrate the selective impact of aerobic organic matter degradation on the lipid and palynomorph composition of surface sediments along a short lateral oxygen gradient and suggest that some of the investigated proxies may be useful tracers of changing redox conditions at the sediment-water interface.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2016-10-25
    Description: Membrane lipids of marine planktonic archaea have provided unique insights into archaeal ecology and paleoceanography. However, past studies of archaeal lipids in suspended particulate matter (SPM) and sediments mainly focused on a small class of fully saturated glycerol dibiphytanyl glycerol tetraether (GDGT) homologues identified decades ago. The apparent low structural diversity of GDGTs is in strong contrast to the high diversity of metabolism and taxonomy among planktonic archaea. Furthermore, adaptation of archaeal lipids in the deep ocean remains poorly constrained. We report the archaeal lipidome in SPM from diverse oceanic regimes. We extend the known inventory of planktonic archaeal lipids to include numerous unsaturated archaeal ether lipids (uns-AELs). We further reveal (i) different thermal regulations and polar headgroup compositions of membrane lipids between the epipelagic (≤ 100 m) and deep (〉100 m) populations of archaea, (ii) stratification of unsaturated GDGTs with varying redox conditions, and (iii) enrichment of tetratetraunsaturated archaeol and fully saturated GDGTs in epipelagic and deep oxygenated waters, respectively. Such str atified lipid patterns are consistent with the typical distribution of archaeal phylotypes in marine environments. We, thus, provide an ecological context for GDGT-based paleoclimatology and bring about the potential use of uns-AELs as biomarkers for planktonic Euryarchaeota.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-03-27
    Description: During RV SONNE cruise SO239 in March/April 2015 five sites in the area of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) in the eastern equatorial Pacific were visited as part of the JPI Oceans pilot action “Ecological Aspects of Deep-Sea Mining“. Here, we present a comparable study on (1) the redox zonation in the sediments induced by the input flux of organic matter, (2) biogeochemical reactions including the driver of organic matter degradation and (3) diagenetic manganese redistribution and implications for manganese nodule formation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-03-27
    Description: During RV SONNE cruise SO239 in March/April 2015 five sites in the area of the Clarion-Clipperton Fracture Zone (CCZ) in the eastern equatorial Pacific were visited as part of the JPI Oceans pilot action Ecological Aspects of Deep-Sea Mining“. Here, we present a comparable study on (1) the redox zonation in the sediments induced by the input flux of organic matter, (2) biogeochemical reactions including the driver of organic matter degradation and (3) diagenetic manganese redistribution and implications for manganese nodule formation.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Conference , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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