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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0967
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract Hawaiite-type lavas were erupted in three cycles (3.7, 1.2, and 0.3 M.y.) at Crater Flat, Nevada. The compositions of all three cycles, considered together, form a “straddling” alkalic series as defined by Miyashiro, in which the less evolved basalts plot near the normative olivine-diopside divide and the more evolved basalts project into hypersthene or nepheline fields. Fractionation modeling based on the oldest cycle allows the removal of olivine, clinopyroxene, and amphibole to arrive at the more evolved hawaiite compositions. In general, fractionation of phlogo-pite or feldspar is limited by the fractionation modeling and by Eu/REE relations. In detail, all hawaiites within one cycle (3.7 M.y.) need not be derived from a single parent magma. Varied parentage is more evident between cycles although all cycles are consistently of hawaiite composition. Basalts of the youngest two cycles are generally enriched in trace elements. Superimposed on this enrichment is a lack of Rb variation, leading to Rb/Sr ratios far lower than required to generate the high 87Sr/86Sr ratio (0.707) typical of basalts in this region. The very low Rb/Sr ratios limit processes that may lead to trace-element enrichment during magma evolution (cyclic recharge of a fractionating magma chamber). Decreased fractions of mantle melting leaving phlogopite in the residuum or an earlier event of metasomatic transport from phlogopite-bearing mantle rocks into a phlogopite-absent mantle assemblage might explain the observed trace-element enrichment with low Rb/Sr.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: A miniature XRD/XRF (X-ray diffraction / X-ray fluorescence) instrument, CHEMIN, is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed to enable remote XRD analysis is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For powder XRD analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a two-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results even with poorly prepared powder, the quality of the data will improve and the time required for data collection will be reduced if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. A variety of methods have been proposed for XRD sample preparation. Chipera et al. presented grain size distributions and XRD results from powders generated with an Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL. The USDC was shown to be an effective instrument for sampling rock to produce powder suitable for XRD. In this paper, we compare powder prepared using the USDC with powder obtained with a miniaturized rock crusher developed at JPL and with powder obtained with a rotary tungsten carbide bit to powders obtained from a laboratory bench-scale Retsch mill (provides benchmark mineralogical data). These comparisons will allow assessment of the suitability of these methods for analysis by an XRD/XRF instrument such as CHEMIN.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: Missions and Instruments: Hopes and Hope Fulfilled; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: The requirements for obtaining geological, geochemical, geophysical, and meteorological data on the surface of Mars associated with manned landings were analyzed. Specific instruments were identified and their mass and power requirements estimated. A total of 1 to 5 metric tons, not including masses of drill rigs and surface vehicles, will need to be landed. Power associated only with the scientific instruments is estimated to be 1 to 2 kWe. Requirements for surface rover vehicles were defined and typical exploration traverses during which instruments will be positioned and rock and subsurface core samples obtained were suggested.
    Keywords: LUNAR AND PLANETARY EXPLORATION
    Type: NASA. Marshall Space Flight Center Manned Mars Mission. Working Group Papers, V. 2, Sect. 5, App.; p 532-542
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1600-5775
    Source: Crystallography Journals Online : IUCR Backfile Archive 1948-2001
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Mineral identification is a critical component of Mars Astrobiological missions. Chemical or elemental data alone are not definitive because a single elemental or chemical composition or even a single bonding type can represent a range of substances or mineral assemblages. Minerals are defined as unique structural and compositional phases that occur naturally. There are about 15,000 minerals that have been described on Earth, all uniquely identifiable via diffraction methods. There are likely many minerals yet undiscovered on Earth, and likewise on Mars. If an unknown phase is identified on Mars, it can be fully characterized by structural (X-ray Diffraction, XRD) and elemental analysis (X-ray Fluorescence, XRF) without recourse to other data because XRD relies on the principles of atomic arrangement for its determinations. XRD is the principal means of identification and characterization of minerals on Earth.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: The Future of Mars Surface Exploration; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-06-11
    Description: Mineralogical analysis is a critical component of planetary surface exploration. Chemical data alone leave serious gaps in our understanding of the surfaces of planets where complex minerals may form in combination with H, S, and halogens. On such planets (e.g., Mars) a single chemical composition may represent a range of mineral assemblages. For example, Viking chemical analyses of excavated duricrust indicate that Mg and S are correlated and ~10% MgSO4 (anhydrous weight) is a likely cementing agent. Pathfinder chemical data support a similar abundance of MgSO4 in the most altered materials. However, there are many possible Mg-sulfates with widely varying hydration states (including dehydrated and 1-, 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, 6-, and 7-hydrates). In addition, other sulfate minerals such as gypsum (CaSO4 .2H2O) and other salts containing Cl may also exist. X-ray diffraction (XRD) has the ability to decipher mixtures of these phases that would be difficult, if not impossible to unravel using only chemical or spectral data.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV: The Future of Mars Surface Exploration; LPI-Contrib-1197
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2018-06-08
    Type: 34th Lunar and Planetary Science Conference; League City, TX; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: An important goal of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL 09) mission is the determination of definitive mineralogy and chemical composition. CheMin is a miniature X-ray diffraction/X-ray fluorescence (XRD/XRF) instrument that has been chosen for the analytical laboratory of MSL. CheMin utilizes a miniature microfocus source cobalt X-ray tube, a transmission sample cell and an energy-discriminating X-ray sensitive CCD to produce simultaneous 2-D X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray fluorescence spectra from powdered or crushed samples. A diagrammatic view of the instrument is shown.
    Keywords: Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXVI, Part 2; LPI-Contrib-1234-Pt-2
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-10-02
    Description: A miniature CHEMIN XRD/XRF (X-Ray Diffraction/X-Ray Fluourescence) instrument is currently being developed for definitive mineralogic analysis of soils and rocks on Mars. One of the technical issues that must be addressed in order to enable XRD analysis on an extraterrestrial body is how best to obtain a representative sample powder for analysis. For XRD powder diffraction analyses, it is beneficial to have a fine-grained sample to reduce preferred orientation effects and to provide a statistically significant number of crystallites to the X-ray beam. Although a 2-dimensional detector as used in the CHEMIN instrument will produce good results with poorly prepared powders, the quality of the data will improve if the sample is fine-grained and randomly oriented. An Ultrasonic/Sonic Driller/Corer (USDC) currently being developed at JPL is an effective mechanism of sampling rock to produce cores and powdered cuttings. It requires low axial load (〈 5N) and thus offers significant advantages for operation from lightweight platforms and in low gravity environments. The USDC is lightweight (〈0.5kg), and can be driven at low power (〈5W) using duty cycling. It consists of an actuator with a piezoelectric stack, ultrasonic horn, free-mass, and drill bit. The stack is driven with a 20 kHz AC voltage at resonance. The strain generated by the piezoelectric is amplified by the horn by a factor of up to 10 times the displacement amplitude. The tip impacts the free-mass and drives it into the drill bit in a hammering action. The free-mass rebounds to interact with the horn tip leading to a cyclic rebound at frequencies in the range of 60-1000 Hz. It does not require lubricants, drilling fluid or bit sharpening and it has the potential to operate at high and low temperatures using a suitable choice of piezoelectric material. To assess whether the powder from an ultrasonic drill would be adequate for analyses by an XRD/XRF spectrometer such as CHEMIN, powders obtained from the JPL ultrasonic drill were analyzed and the results were compared to carefully prepared powders obtained using a laboratory bench scale Retsch mill.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
    Type: Lunar and Planetary Science XXXIV; LPI-Contrib-1156
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