specific metabolic rates
Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
Glutamine is a major source of energy, carbon, and nitrogen for mammalian cells. The amount of glutamine present in commercial mammalian cell media is, however, not necessarily balanced with cell requirements. Therefore, the effects of glutamine limitation on the physiology of two mammalian cell lines were studied in steady-state chemostat cultures fed with IMDM medium with 5% serum. The cell lines used were MN12, a mouse-mouse hybridoma, and SP2/0-Ag14, a mouse myeloma often used in hybridoma fusions. Cultures, grown at a fixed dilution rate of 0.03 h-1, were fed with media containing glutamine concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 4 mmol L-1. Biomass dry weight and cell number were linearly proportional to the glutamine concentrations fed, between 0.5 and 2 mmol L-1, and glutamine was completely consumed by both cell lines. From this it was concluded that glutamine was the growth-limiting substrate in this concentration range and that the standard formulation of IMDM medium contains a twofold excess of glutamine. In glutamine-limited cultures, the specific rates of ammonia and alanine production were low compared to glutamine-excess cultures containing 4 mmol L-1 glutamine in the feed medium. The specific consumption rates of nearly all amino acids decreased with increasing glutamine feed, indicating that, in their metabolic function, they may partially be replaced by glutamine. Both cell lines reacted similarly to differences in glutamine feeding in all aspects investigated, except for glucose metabolism, In SP2/0-Ag14 glutamine feed concentrations did not affect the specific glucose consumption, whereas in MN12 this parameter increased with increasing amounts of glutamine fed. This systematic study using controlled culture conditions together with a detailed analysis of culture data shows that, although cells may react similarly in many aspects, cell-line-specific characteristics may be encountered even with respect to fundamental physiological responses like the interaction of the glutamine and glucose metabolism. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Biotechnol Bioeng 54: 272-286, 1997.
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