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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract Antibodies from the serum of patients with the autoimmune disease scleroderma CREST were used to investigate the association and distribution of kinetochores in mouse cells during meiosis and spermiogenesis. The pattern of indirect immunofluorescent staining in pachytene nuclei indicated that each autosomal bivalent contains one fluorescent spot. Throughout pachytene, the kinetochores were arranged non-randomly into several clusters and distributed around the periphery of the nucleus. In subsequent stages of meiotic prophase I, distribution was random and the number of fluorescent spots increased from 21 to 40 corresponding to the diploid chromosome number and the number of halfbivalents oriented to the spindle poles at the metaphase I. Twenty pairs of kinetochores were observed at metaphase II. During spermiogenesis, the number of kinetochores correlated with the haploid chromosome number in early spermatids but tandem association of centromeres and clustering into a conspicuous chromocenter corresponded to a significant reduction in the number of fluorescent foci in mid-spermatid nuclei. The number of stained sites per nucleus continued to decrease during sperm maturation and total absence of staining was apparent in mature spermatozoa. Immunoblotting of proteins extracted from mature sperm however, indicated that a kinetochore antigen of Mr 80,000 was still present. Therefore, the absence of kinetochore staining in mature spermatozoa is probably due to the blockage of epitopes during chromatin condensation.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0886
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Abstract The chromosomes of the Indian muntjac (Muntiacus muntjak vaginalis) are unique among mammals due to their low diploid number (2N=6♀, 7♂) and large size. It has been proposed that the karyotype of this small Asiatic deer evolved from a related deer the Chinese muntjac (Muntiacus reevesi) with a diploid chromosome number of 2n= 46 consisting of small telocentric chromosomes. In this study we utilized a kinetochore-specific antiserum derived from human patients with the autoimmune disease scleroderma CREST as an immunofluorescent probe to examine kinetochores of the two muntjac species. Since CREST antiserum binds to kinetochores of mitotic chromosomes as well as prekinetochores in interphase nuclei, it was possible to identify and compare kinetochore morphology throughout the cell cycle. Our observations indicated that the kinetochores of the Indian muntjac are composed of a linear beadlike array of smaller subunits that become revealed during interphase. The kinetochores of the Chinese muntjac consisted of minute fluorescent dots located at the tips of the 46 telocentric chromosomes. During interphase, however, the kinetochores of the Chinese muntjac clustered into small aggregates reminiscent of the beadlike arrays seen in the Indian muntjac. Morphometric measurements of fluorescence indicated an equivalent amount of stained material in the two species. Our observations indicate that the kinetochores of the Indian muntjac are compound structures composed of linear arrays of smaller units the size of the individual kinetochores seen on metaphase chromosomes of the Chinese muntjac. Our study supports the notion that the kinetochores of the Indian muntjac evolved by linear fusion of unit kinetochores of the Chinese muntjac. Moreover, it is concluded that the evolution of compound kinetochores may have been facilitated by the nonrandom aggregation of interphase kinetochores in the nuclei of the ancestral species.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1420-9071
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary In the isolated perfused rat pancreas, omission of extracellular phosphate (H2PO 4 − significantly reduces the insulin secretion in response to 16.7 mM glucose.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2016-02-17
    Description: Optical to electrical power converting semiconductor devices were achieved with breakthrough performance by designing a Vertical Epitaxial Heterostructure Architecture. The devices are featuring modeled and measured conversion efficiencies greater than 65%. The ultrahigh conversion efficiencies were obtained by monolithically integrating several thin GaAs photovoltaic junctions tailored with submicron absorption thicknesses and grown in a single crystal by epitaxy. The heterostructures that were engineered with a number N of such ultrathin junctions yielded an optimal external quantum efficiencies approaching 100%/ N . The heterostructures are capable of output voltages that are multiple times larger than the corresponding photovoltage of the input light. The individual nanoscale junctions are each generating up to ∼1.2 V of output voltage when illuminated in the infrared. We compare the optoelectronic properties of phototransducers prepared with designs having 5 to 12 junctions and that are exhibiting voltage outputs between 〉5 V and 〉14 V.
    Print ISSN: 0003-6951
    Electronic ISSN: 1077-3118
    Topics: Physics
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