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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2019-04-04
    Description: Denmark Strait Overflow Water (DSOW) supplies the densest contribution to North Atlantic Deep Water and is monitored at several locations in the subpolar North Atlantic. Hydrographic (temperature and salinity) and velocity time series from three multiple-mooring arrays at the Denmark Strait sill, at 180 km downstream (south of Dohrn Bank) and at a further 320 km downstream on the east Greenland continental slope near Tasiilaq (formerly Angmagssalik), were analyzed to quantify the variability and track anomalies in DSOW in the period 2007-2012. No long-term trends were detected in the time series, while variability on time scales from interannual to weekly was present at all moorings. The hydrographic time series from different moorings within each mooring array showed coherent signals, while the velocity fluctuations were only weakly correlated. Lagged correlations of anomalies between the arrays revealed a propagation from the sill of Denmark Strait to the Angmagssalik array in potential temperature with an average propagation time of 13 days, while the correlations in salinity were low. Entrainment of warm and saline Atlantic Water and fresher water from the East Greenland Current (via the East Greenland Spill Jet) can explain the whole range of hydrographic changes in the DSOW measured downstream of the sill. Changes in the entrained water masses and in the mixing ratio can thus strongly influence the salinity variability of DSOW. Fresh anomalies found in downstream measurements of DSOW within the Deep Western Boundary Current can therefore not be attributed to Arctic climate variability in a straightforward way
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed , info:eu-repo/semantics/article
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2015-09-28
    Description: The Denmark Strait overflow provides about half of the total dense water overflow from the Nordic Seas into the North Atlantic Ocean. The velocity of the overflow has been monitored in the Strait with two moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers since 1996 with several interruptions due to mooring losses or instrument failure. So far, overflow transports were only calculated when data from both moorings were available. In this work, we introduce a linear model to fill gaps in the time series when data from only one instrument is available. The mean overflow transport is 3.4 Sv and exhibits a variance of 2.0 Sv2. No significant trend was detected in the time series. The highest variability in the transport is associated with the passage of mesoscale eddies with time scales of 2–10 days (associated with a variance of 1.5 Sv2). Seasonal variability is weak and explains less than 5% of the variance in all time series, which is in contrast to the strong seasonal cycle found in high resolution model simulations. Interannual variability is on the order of 10% of the mean. A relation to atmospheric forcing such as the local wind stress curl, as well as to larger scale phenomena, e.g. the North Atlantic Oscillation, is not detected. Since 2005 data from moored temperature, conductivity and pressure recorders have been available as well, monitoring the hydrographic variability at the bottom of Denmark Strait. In recent years the temperature time series of the Denmark Strait overflow revealed a cooling, while the salinity stayed nearly constant.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-02-07
    Description: In spite of the fundamental role the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) plays for global climate stability, no direct current measurement of the Denmark Strait Overflow, which is the densest part of the AMOC, has been available until recently that resolve the cross-stream structure at the sill for long periods. Since 1999, an array of bottom-mounted acoustic instruments measuring current velocity and bottom-to-surface acoustic travel times was deployed at the sill. Here, the optimization of the array configuration based on a numerical overflow model is discussed. The simulation proves that more than 80% of the dense water transport variability is captured by two to three acoustic current profilers (ADCPs). The results are compared with time series from ADCPs and Inverted Echo Sounders deployed from 1999 to 2003, confirming that the dense overflow plume can be reliably measured by bottom-mounted instruments and that the overflow is largely geostrophically balanced at the sill.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2015-09-23
    Description: The Denmark Strait overflow water is the largest dense water plume from the Nordic seas to feed the lower limb of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Its primary source is commonly thought to be the East Greenland Current. However, the recent discovery of the North Icelandic Jet—a deep-reaching current that flows along the continental slope of Iceland—has called this view into question. Here we present high-resolution measurements of hydrography and velocity north of Iceland, taken during two shipboard surveys in October 2008 and August 2009. We find that the North Icelandic Jet advects overflow water into the Denmark Strait and constitutes a pathway that is distinct from the East Greenland Current. We estimate that the jet supplies about half of the total overflow transport, and infer that it is the primary source of the densest overflow water. Simulations with an ocean general circulation model suggest that the import of warm, salty water from the North Icelandic Irminger Current and water-mass transformation in the interior Iceland Sea are critical to the formation of the jet. We surmise that the timescale for the renewal of the deepest water in the meridional overturning cell, and its sensitivity to changes in climate, could be different than presently envisaged.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-03-17
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2014-08-18
    Description: The recently discovered East Greenland Spill Jet is a bottom-intensified current on the upper continental slope south of Denmark Strait, transporting intermediate density water equatorward. Until now the Spill Jet has only been observed with limited summertime measurements from ships. Here we present the first year-round mooring observations demonstrating that the current is a ubiquitous feature with a volume transport similar to the well-known plume of Denmark Strait overflow water farther downslope. Using reverse particle tracking in a high-resolution numerical model, we investigate the upstream sources feeding the Spill Jet. Three main pathways are identified: particles flowing directly into the Spill Jet from the Denmark Strait sill; particles progressing southward on the East Greenland shelf that subsequently spill over the shelfbreak into the current; and ambient water from the Irminger Sea that gets entrained into the flow. The two Spill Jet pathways emanating from Denmark Strait are newly resolved, and long-term hydrographic data from the strait verifies that dense water is present far onto the Greenland shelf. Additional measurements near the southern tip of Greenland suggest that the Spill Jet ultimately merges with the deep portion of the shelfbreak current, originally thought to be a lateral circulation associated with the sub-polar gyre. Our study thus reveals a previously unrecognized significant component of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation that needs to be considered to understand fully the ocean's role in climate.
    Repository Name: EPIC Alfred Wegener Institut
    Type: Article , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 7
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    PANGAEA
    In:  International Council for the Exploration of the Sea, Copenhagen
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Description: Primary Objectives - Describe and quantify the present strength and variability of the circulation and oceanic processes of the Nordic Seas regions using primarily observations of the long term spread of a tracer purposefully released into the Greenland Sea Gyre in 1996. - Improve our understanding of ocean processes critical to the thermaholine circulation in the Nordic Seas regions so as to be able to predict how this region may respond to climate change. - Assess the role of mixing and ageing of water masses on the carbon transport and the role of the thermohaline circulation in carbon storage using water transports and mixing coefficients derived from the tracer distribution. Specific Objectives Perform annual hydrographic, chemical and SF6 tracer surveys into the Nordic regions in order to: - Measure lateral and diapycnal mixing rates in the Greenland Sea Gyre and in the surrounding regions. - Document the depth and rates of convective mixing in the Greenland Sea using the SF6 and the water masses characteristics. - Measure the transit time and transport of water from the Greenland Sea to surrounding seas and outflows. Document processes of water mass transformation and entrainment occurring to water emanating from the central Greenland Sea. - Measure diapycnal mixing rates in the bottom and margins of the Greenland Sea basin using the SF6 signal observed there. Quantify the potential role of bottom boundary-layer mixing in the ventilation of the Greenland Sea Deep Water in absence of deep convection. Monitor the variability of the entrainment of water from the Greenland Sea using time series auto-sampler moorings at strategic positions i.e., sill of the Denmark Strait, Labrador Sea, Jan Mayen fracture zone and Fram Strait. Relate the observed variability of the tracer signal in the outflows to convection events in the Greenland Sea and local wind stress events. Obtain a better description of deepwater overflow and entrainment processes in the Denmark Strait and Faeroe Bank Channel overflows and use these to improve modelling of deepwater overflows. Monitor the tracer invasion into the North Atlantic using opportunistic SF6 measurements from other cruises: we anticipate that a number of oceanographic cruises will take place in the north-east Atlantic and the Labrador Sea. It should be possible to get samples from some cruises for SF6 measurements. Use process models to describe the spread of the tracer to achieve better parameterisation for three-dimensional models. One reason that these are so resistant to prediction is that our best ocean models are as yet some distance from being good enough, to predict climate and climate change.
    Type: Dataset
    Format: application/zip, 15 datasets
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  • 8
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Marine Research Institute, Reykjavik / Iceland
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 12951 data points
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  • 9
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Marine Research Institute, Reykjavik / Iceland
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 83136 data points
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  • 10
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    PANGAEA
    In:  Marine Research Institute, Reykjavik / Iceland
    Publication Date: 2019-07-12
    Type: Dataset
    Format: text/tab-separated-values, 3009 data points
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