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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2016-04-29
    Description: Umbilical cord blood-derived haematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are essential for many life-saving regenerative therapies. However, despite their advantages for transplantation, their clinical use is restricted because HSCs in cord blood are found only in small numbers. Small molecules that enhance haematopoietic stem and progenitor cell (HSPC) expansion in culture have been identified, but in many cases their mechanisms of action or the nature of the pathways they impinge on are poorly understood. A greater understanding of the molecular circuitry that underpins the self-renewal of human HSCs will facilitate the development of targeted strategies that expand HSCs for regenerative therapies. Whereas transcription factor networks have been shown to influence the self-renewal and lineage decisions of human HSCs, the post-transcriptional mechanisms that guide HSC fate have not been closely investigated. Here we show that overexpression of the RNA-binding protein Musashi-2 (MSI2) induces multiple pro-self-renewal phenotypes, including a 17-fold increase in short-term repopulating cells and a net 23-fold ex vivo expansion of long-term repopulating HSCs. By performing a global analysis of MSI2-RNA interactions, we show that MSI2 directly attenuates aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) signalling through post-transcriptional downregulation of canonical AHR pathway components in cord blood HSPCs. Our study gives mechanistic insight into RNA networks controlled by RNA-binding proteins that underlie self-renewal and provides evidence that manipulating such networks ex vivo can enhance the regenerative potential of human HSCs.〈br /〉〈br /〉〈a href="" target="_blank"〉〈img src="" border="0"〉〈/a〉   〈a href="" target="_blank"〉This paper as free author manuscript - peer-reviewed and accepted for publication〈/a〉〈br /〉〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Notes: 〈/span〉Rentas, Stefan -- Holzapfel, Nicholas T -- Belew, Muluken S -- Pratt, Gabriel A -- Voisin, Veronique -- Wilhelm, Brian T -- Bader, Gary D -- Yeo, Gene W -- Hope, Kristin J -- HG004659/HG/NHGRI NIH HHS/ -- MOP-126030/Canadian Institutes of Health Research/Canada -- NS075449/NS/NINDS NIH HHS/ -- England -- Nature. 2016 Apr 28;532(7600):508-11. doi: 10.1038/nature17665.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Author address: 〈/span〉Department of Biochemistry and Biomedical Sciences, Stem Cell and Cancer Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario L8S 4K1, Canada. ; Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, Institute for Genomic Medicine, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; Bioinformatics Graduate Program, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California 92037, USA. ; The Donnelly Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3E1, Canada. ; Institute for Research in Immunology and Cancer, University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec H3C 3J7, Canada. ; Department of Physiology, National University of Singapore and Molecular Engineering Laboratory, A*STAR, Singapore 138632, Singapore.〈br /〉〈span class="detail_caption"〉Record origin:〈/span〉 〈a href="" target="_blank"〉PubMed〈/a〉
    Keywords: Animals ; Base Sequence ; Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics/*metabolism ; Cell Count ; *Cell Self Renewal/genetics ; Down-Regulation/genetics ; Female ; Fetal Blood/cytology ; Gene Knockdown Techniques ; Hematopoietic Stem Cells/*cytology/*metabolism ; Humans ; Male ; Mice ; Protein Binding ; RNA, Messenger/genetics/metabolism ; RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics/*metabolism ; Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon/genetics/*metabolism ; *Signal Transduction/genetics
    Print ISSN: 0028-0836
    Electronic ISSN: 1476-4687
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2012-04-11
    Description: Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2-positive (HER2+) breast cancer (BC) is a highly aggressive disease commonly treated with chemotherapy and anti-HER2 drugs, including trastuzumab. There is currently no way to predict which HER2+ BC patients will benefit from these treatments. Previous prognostic signatures for HER2+ BC were developed irrespective of the subtype or the hierarchical organization of cancer in which only a fraction of cells, tumor-initiating cells (TICs), can sustain tumor growth. Here, we used serial dilution and single-cell transplantation assays to identify MMTV-Her2/Neu mouse mammary TICs as CD24+:JAG1− at a frequency of 2–4.5%. A 17-gene Her2-TIC-enriched signature (HTICS), generated on the basis of differentially expressed genes in TIC versus non-TIC fractions and trained on one HER2+ BC cohort, predicted clinical outcome on multiple independent HER2+ cohorts. HTICS included up-regulated genes involved in S/G2/M transition and down-regulated genes involved in immune response. Its prognostic power was independent of other predictors, stratified lymph node+ HER2+ BC into low and high-risk subgroups, and was specific for HER2+:estrogen receptor alpha-negative (ERα−) patients (10-y overall survival of 83.6% for HTICS− and 24.0% for HTICS+ tumors; hazard ratio = 5.57; P = 0.002). Whereas HTICS was specific to HER2+:ERα− tumors, a previously reported stroma-derived signature was predictive for HER2+:ERα+ BC. Retrospective analyses revealed that patients with HTICS+ HER2+:ERα− tumors resisted chemotherapy but responded to chemotherapy plus trastuzumab. HTICS is, therefore, a powerful prognostic signature for HER2+:ERα− BC that can be used to identify high risk patients that would benefit from anti-HER2 therapy.
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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