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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Salt stress ; Heat shock proteins
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract In Bacillus subtilis, heat shock proteins can be classified into two main groups: specific heat shock proteins (about 5) and general stress proteins (at least 14). Salt stress was very effective in the induction of general stress proteins (5 to 50-fold stimulation), but the synthesis of heat-specific stress proteins was not stimulated. Furthermore there were some proteins whose synthesis was accelerated only by salt stress.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-072X
    Keywords: Key wordsBacillus subtilis ; sigB ; Chemostat ; Glucose limitation ; Slow growth ; Survival
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Glucose-limited continuous cultures were used to analyze σB activity at decreasing growth rates. Expression of the σB-dependent genes gsiB and ctc started to increase at a growth rate of 0.2 h–1, and both genes were induced approximately fivefold at a growth rate of 0.1 h–1 as compared to expression at the maximal growth rate. However, maximal σB activity was only reached when the growth stopped as a result of the exhaustion of the carbon and energy source glucose. During glucose-limited growth, increased expression of the general stress regulon at growth rates below 0.2 h–1 did not provide wild-type cells with a growth advantage over sigB mutants. Instead, expression of the stress regulon seems to constitute a significant burden during glucose-limited growth, resulting in a selective growth advantage of the sigB mutant as compared to the wild-type at a growth rate of 0.08 h–1.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1617-4623
    Keywords: General stress proteins ; gsiB ; σB ; transcription ; ATP level
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The expression of thegsiB gene ofBacillus subtilis in response to a wide variety of stress conditions was analysed, and the results provide evidence thatgsiB is subject to a σB regulation. Primer extension experiments established identical start points forgsiB transcription during growth and after the induction by heat shock, salt or ethanol stress, and glucose limitation. The sequence upstream of the transcription start point shows great similarity to the sequences of σB promoters ofB. subtilis. σB was absolutely required for the increase ingsiB mRNA level and in the synthesis rate of GsiB in response to various stimuli. Measurements of the ATP pool indicated that changes in the level of ATP might be one of the signals that regulate the activity of σB inB. subtilis.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology ecology 7 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6941
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
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  • 5
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    FEMS microbiology letters 74 (1990), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Bacillus cells frequently faced with various adverse environmental factors in nature have evolved different adaptational strategies. The induction of stress proteins is an essential component of this adaptational network. In Bacillus subtilis there are two groups of stress proteins. The first group is factor specific, whereas the second group is induced by growth restrictive conditions in general. The relationship between the stringent response and the induction of stress proteins is discussed.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Sodium chloride treatment triggered the accumulation of (p)ppGpp in the Bacillus subtilis relA+ strain IS58 as well as in its relaxed counterpart IS56. Besides this relA-independent (p)ppGpp induction the GTP and ATP pools decreased dramatically.In previous papers we found a direct correlation between (p)ppGpp accumulation and stress protein induction. In B. subtilis relA the (p)ppGpp accumulation was accompanied by the induction of general stress proteins whose synthesis rates were also enhanced by heat stress, amino acid limitation or oxygen starvation. Specific heat shock proteins were not induced by salt stress.We suggest that these general stress proteins are induced under non-growing conditions in general.
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  • 7
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford BSL : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Molecular microbiology 19 (1996), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: The induction of stress proteins is an important component of the adaptional network of a non-growing cell of Bacillus subtilis. A diverse range of stresses such as heat shock, salt stress, ethanol, starvation for oxygen or nutrients etc. induce the same set of proteins, called general stress proteins. Although the adaptive functions of these proteins are largely unknown, they are proposed to provide general and rather non-specific protection of the cell under these adverse conditions. In addition to these non-specific general stress proteins, all extracellular signals induce a set of specific stress proteins that may confer specific protection against a particular stress factor. In B. subtilis at least three different classes of heat-inducible genes can be defined by their common regulatory characteristics: Class I genes, as exemplified by the dnaK and groE operons, are most efficiently induced by heat stress. Their expression involves a σA-dependent promoter, an inverted repeat (called the CIRCE element) highly conserved among eubacteria, and probably a repressor interacting with the CIRCE element. The majority of general stress genes (class II, more than 40) are induced at σB-dependent promoters by different growth-inhibiting conditions. The activation of σB by stress or starvation is the crucial event in the induction of this large stress regulon. Only a few genes, including lonclpCclpP, and ftsH, can respond to different stress factors independently of σB or CIRCE (class III). Stress induction of these genes occurs at promoters presumably recognized by σA and probably involves additional regulatory elements which remain to be defined.
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1365-2958
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Medicine
    Notes: Bacillus subtilis cells respond almost immediately to different stress conditions by increasing the production of general stress proteins (GSPs). The genes encoding the majority of the GSPs that are induced by heat, ethanol, salt stress or by starvation for glucose, oxygen or phosphate belong to the σB-dependent general stress regulon. Despite a good understanding of the complex regulation of the activity of σB and knowledge of a very large number of general stress genes controlled by σB, first insights into the physiological role of this non-specific stress response have been obtained only very recently. To explore the physiological role of this regulon, we and others identified σB-dependent general stress genes and compared the stress tolerance of wild-type cells with mutants lacking σB or general stress proteins. The proteins encoded by σB-dependent general stress genes can be divided into at least five functional groups that most probably provide growth-restricted B. subtilis cells with a multiple stress resistance in anticipation of future stress. In particular, sigB mutants are impaired in non-specific resistance to oxidative stress, which requires the σB-dependent dps gene encoding a DNA-protecting protein. Protection against oxidative damage of membranes, proteins or DNA could be the most essential component of σB-mediated general stress resistance in growth-arrested aerobic Gram-positive bacteria. Other general stress genes have both a σB-dependent induction pathway and a second σB-independent mechanism of stress induction, thereby partially compensating for a σB deficiency in a sigB mutant. In contrast to sigB mutants, null mutations in genes encoding those proteins, such as clpP or clpC, cause extreme sensitivity to salt or heat.
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1574-6968
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract Heat-inducible DNA fragments of Bacillus subtilis were cloned with two different promoter probe vectors. The increased synthesis of the reporter enzymes seemed to be due to a transient increase in the transcription of the encoding genes. The structures of the heat-sensitive promoters resembles the consensus sequence of promoters recognized by the vegetative form of RNA polymerase of B. subtilis. Our results support data in literature that the heat shock response of B. subtilis is regulated by a different mechanism than in Escherichia coli, where alternative sigma factors direct the transcription of heat shock genes.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 0173-0835
    Keywords: Bacillus subtilis ; Two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis ; Protein index ; Stress proteins ; SigmaB ; Chemistry ; Biochemistry and Biotechnology
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Notes: Data on the identification of proteins of Bacillus subtilis on two-dimensional (2-D) gels as well as their regulation are summarized and the identification of 56 protein spots is included. The pattern of proteins synthesized in Bacillus subtilis during exponential growth, during starvation for glucose or phosphate, or after the imposition of stresses like heat shock, salt- and ethanol stress as well as oxidative stress was analyzed. N-terminal sequencing of protein spots allowed the identification of 93 proteins on 2-D gels, which are required for the synthesis of amino acids and nucleotides, the generation of ATP, for glycolyses, the pentose phosphate cycle, the citric acid cycle as well as for adaptation to a variety of stress conditions. A computer-aided analysis of the 2-D gels was used to monitor the synthesis profile of more than 130 protein spots. Proteins performing housekeeping functions during exponential growth displayed a reduced synthesis rate during stress and starvation, whereas spots induced during stress and starvation were classified as specific stress proteins induced by a single stimulus or a group of related stimuli, or as general stress proteins induced by a variety of entrely different stimuli. The analysis of mutants in global regulators was initiated in order to establish a response regulation map for B. subtilis. These investigations demonstrated that the alternative sigma factor σB is involved in the regulation of almost all of the general stress proteins and that the phoPR two-component system is required for the induction of a large part but not all of the proteins induced by phosphate starvation.
    Additional Material: 4 Ill.
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