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  • 1
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Effects of sward height and density on the dimensions and weights of bites taken by cattle were examined. In one experiment, swards of dallisgrass lamina were constructed by hand in a factorial combination of four heights (80, 150, 180 and 300 mm) and three densities (c. 700, 1500 and 2700 g m−3). In the other, swards of lucerne were constructed in a factorial combination of three heights (70, 150 and 250 mm) and three densities (1500, 2800 and 5900 g m−3). Treatments were replicated on three steers of 750 kg average weight. The first six bites taken from the sward were monitored, and functional relationships between sward characteristics and bite dimensions derived. Results from both experiments were similar. Average bite area was not constant as often assumed, but decreased linearly with density and increased quadratically with height, with slope negatively affected by density and height. In tail swards, bite area reached a plateau of c. 170 cm2, determined by the sweep of the tongue. In contrast with the widely used model, bite depth increased linearly with height, with slope negatively affected by density. Response of bite dimensions was explained by the mechanics of the interaction between tongue and jaw movements, and sward structure. Bite weight varied less than bite dimensions, because of compensatory effects between bite area, bite depth and density. Animals obtained heavier bites in tall sparse swards than on short dense ones of equal mass/area. Even in homogeneous swards, both density and height are necessary to predict bite weight.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Grazing studies are hampered by difficulty in controlling the characteristics of that part of the sward encountered by animals. A methodology was developed to study the effects of sward height, density and spatial arrangement on bite dimensions, bite weight and instantaneous intake rate by cattle. Hand-constructed swards (HCS) consisted of tillers threaded through wooden modules and attached to a base board. The microphone of a cordless transmitter was attached to the forehead of steers before swards were grazed. HCS were bolted onto a force plate which recorded the forces exerted during grazing. Grazing sessions were videotaped. Height and density of swards were successfully controlled by hand-construction. Bite weight was determined more accurately by dry matter (DM) disappearance than by the reduction of fresh weight corrected for moisture loss and herbage DM content. Bite area and bite depth were precisely measured by counting and measuring the residual height of grazed plant parts. Bites and chews were identified and counted from the soundtrack of video tapes. Visual count of chews was inaccurate because animals can prehend new herbage and chew herbage previously gathered with the same jaw movement. Many jaw movements involve only manipulation of herbage without biting or chewing. Bite dimensions result from the physical interaction of relatively fixed motor patterns, such as tongue sweeps, with vegetation structure. Thus, bite dimensions measured by this technique are relevant to field situations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford UK : Blackwell Science Ltd
    Grass and forage science 56 (2001), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1365-2494
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: The processes that occur during the depletion of a single feeding station by grazing cattle are important to our understanding of intake at larger spatial scales. Factorial experiments were conducted in which feeding stations of different sizes were grazed individually by cattle to various levels of depletion, defined as the number of bites removed. Feeding stations in Experiment 1 (alfalfa) measured 0·11, 0·24 and 0·45 m2, and the numbers of bites removed for depletion levels 1–3 were 35, 70 and 104 m−2 respectively. Feeding stations in Experiment 2 (oats) measured 0·11 and 0·24 m2, and the numbers of bites were 45, 95 and 140 m−2 offered. In both experiments a fourth depletion level (not included in the analysis of variance) determined the maximum voluntary depletion, and exceeded 250 bites m−2 offered. Initial sward height was 20 cm. Bite dimensions were derived from the frequency distribution of residual herbage heights. Treatments were replicated over six and four animals of approximately 500 kg live weight in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively.The mean residual herbage height and the frequency distribution of residual heights indicated that bites were removed predominantly from the top grazing horizon at depletion levels 1–3, with a mean effective bite depth of 8·6 cm. Nevertheless, at the same depletion levels, the mean effective bite area declined from 148 to 87 cm2 in Experiment 1 (alfalfa, Medicago sativa L.) and from 86 to 58 cm2 in Experiment 2 (oats, Avena sativa L.). Feeding station size did not significantly affect mean effective bite area in either experiment.Simulation was used to examine the implications of various overlap rules (from completely random to highly systematic) for within-grazing-horizon placement of a circular bite of constant potential area. These rules shaped the relationship between mean effective bite area and number of bites removed per unit sward area offered. Bite placement in which permissible overlap became progressively more lenient as the grazing horizon was depleted, and, with acceptable estimates of potential bite area, yielded results that were similar, though not identical, to those measured. These results can help understanding of the factors that determine the intake gain function at a single feeding station.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Means for predicting the fluctuating pressures acting on externally blown flap surfaces are developed on the basis of generalizations derived from non-dimensionalized empirical data. Approaches for estimation of the fatigue lives of skin-stringer and honeycomb-core sandwich flap structures are derived from vibration response analyses and panel fatigue data. Approximate expressions for fluctuating pressures, structural response, and fatigue life are combined to reveal the important parametric dependences. The two-dimensional equations of motion of multi-element flap systems are derived in general form, so that they can be specialized readily for any particular system. An introduction is presented of an approach to characterizing the excitation pressures and structural responses which makes use of space-time spectral concepts and promises to provide useful insights, as well as experimental and analytical savings.
    Keywords: AIRCRAFT
    Type: REPT-2469 , NASA-CR-112216
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 5
    ISSN: 0935-6304
    Keywords: Ion-Exchange TLC on resin coated chromatosheets ; Separation of biogenic amines ; Quantitation by video-densitometry ; Biogenic amines in foods and feeds ; Chemistry ; Analytical Chemistry and Spectroscopy
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
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    Honolulu, etc. : Periodicals Archive Online (PAO)
    Pacific Affairs. 60:4 (1987/1988:Winter) 596 
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-07-01
    Description: Technical problems of design and flight qualification of the proposed classes of surface insulation materials and leading edge materials were reviewed. A screening test plan, a preliminary design data test plan and a design data test plan were outlined. This program defined the apparent critical differences between the surface insulators and the leading edge materials, structuring specialized screening test plans for each of these two classes of materials. Unique testing techniques were shown to be important in evaluating the structural interaction aspects of the surface insulators and a separate task was defined to validate the test plan. In addition, a compilation was made of available information on proposed material (including metallic TPS), previous shuttle programs, pertinent test procedures, and other national programs of merit. This material was collected and summarized in an informally structured workbook.
    Keywords: THERMODYNAMICS AND COMBUSTION
    Type: NASA-CR-125402
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-06-27
    Description: High frequency structural damping due to riveted joints associated with gas pumping between overlapping surfaces
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-954 , REPT.-1475
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-07-01
    Description: Sonic boom simulation by low pressure sources
    Keywords: PHYSICS, GENERAL
    Type: NASA-CR-66969
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-06-26
    Description: Low frequency noise reduction of spacecraft structures
    Keywords: STRUCTURAL MECHANICS
    Type: NASA-CR-589
    Format: application/pdf
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