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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: These notes provide supporting information for a JASA (Journal of the Acoustical Society of America) LttE (Letter to the Editor) manuscript, "Deep seafloor arrivals: A new class of arrivals in long-range ocean acoustic propagation" (Stephen et al., submitted). It addresses five issues raised by the co-authors: 1) incorrect processing for the time-compressed traces at T2300 and T3200 that appeared in an early version of the LttE (T2300, T3200 … refer to transmissions at 2300, 3200km etc from the DVLA (Deep Vertical Line Array)), 2) processing issues, including the trade-offs between coherent and incoherent stacking and corrections for the effects of moving sources and receivers and tidal currents (Doppler), 4) the distinction between "deep shadow zone arrivals", which occur below the turning points in Parabolic Equation (PE) models, and "deep seafloor arrivals", which appear dominantly on the Ocean Bottom Seismometer (OBS) but are either very weak or absent on the deepest element in the DVLA and do not coincide with turning points in the PE model (some of these OBS late arrivals occur after the finale region), 4) the role of surface-reflected bottomreflected (SRBR) paths in explaining the late arriving energy, and 5) generally reconciling the OBS analysis with work by other North Pacific Acoustic Laboratory (NPAL) investigators and Dushaw et al (1999).
    Description: Funding was provided by the Office of Naval Research through Contract No. N00014-06-1-0222.
    Keywords: Ocean bottom seismology ; Ocean acoustic propagation ; Bottom interaction
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-07
    Description: Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 132 (2012): 2224-2231, doi:10.1121/1.4747617.
    Description: Data collected during the 2004 Long-range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment provide absolute intensities and travel times of acoustic pulses at ranges varying from 50 to 3200 km. In this paper a subset of these data is analyzed, focusing on the effects of seafloor reflections at the shortest transmission range of approximately 50 km. At this range bottom-reflected (BR) and surface-reflected, bottom-reflected energy interferes with refracted arrivals. For a finite vertical receiving array spanning the sound channel axis, a high mode number energy in the BR arrivals aliases into low mode numbers because of the vertical spacing between hydrophones. Therefore, knowledge of the BR paths is necessary to fully understand even low mode number processes. Acoustic modeling using the parabolic equation method shows that inclusion of range-dependent bathymetry is necessary to get an acceptable model-data fit. The bottom is modeled as a fluid layer without rigidity, without three dimensional effects, and without scattering from wavelength-scale features. Nonetheless, a good model-data fit is obtained for sub-bottom properties estimated from the data.
    Description: This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 322, Grant Nos. N00014- 10-1-0987, N00014-11-1-0194, and N00014-10-1-0510.
    Keywords: Acoustic wave reflection ; Acoustic wave scattering ; Acoustic wave transmission ; Bathymetry ; Parabolic equations ; Uunderwater acoustic propagation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America or personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134 (2013): 3386, doi:10.1121/1.4820882.
    Description: The propagation of weakly dispersive modal pulses is investigated using data collected during the 2004 long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiment (LOAPEX). Weakly dispersive modal pulses are characterized by weak dispersion- and scattering-induced pulse broadening; such modal pulses experience minimal propagation-induced distortion and are thus well suited to communications applications. In the LOAPEX environment modes 1, 2, and 3 are approximately weakly dispersive. Using LOAPEX observations it is shown that, by extracting the energy carried by a weakly dispersive modal pulse, a transmitted communications signal can be recovered without performing channel equalization at ranges as long as 500 km; at that range a majority of mode 1 receptions have bit error rates (BERs) less than 10%, and 6.5% of mode 1 receptions have no errors. BERs are estimated for low order modes and compared with measurements of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and modal pulse spread. Generally, it is observed that larger modal pulse spread and lower SNR result in larger BERs.
    Description: This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 322, Grant Nos. N00014-06-1-0245, N00014-08-1-0195, and N00014-11-1-0194.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Poster presented AGU Fall Meeting, San Francisco, Californai USA, December 14-18, 2015
    Description: Bottom-diffracted surface-reflected (BDSR) arrivals were first identified in the 2004 Long-range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (Stephen et al, 2013, JASA, v.134, p.3307-3317). The BDSR mechanism provides a means for acoustic signals and noise from distant sources to appear with significant strength on the deep seafloor. At depths deeper than the conjugate depth ambient noise and PE- predicted arrivals are sufficiently quiet that BDSR paths, scattered from small seamounts, can be the largest amplitude arrivals observed. The Ocean Bottom Seismometer Augmentation in the North Pacific (OBSANP) Experiment in June-July 2013 was designed to further define the characteristics of the BDSRs and to understand the conditions under which BDSRs are excited and propagate. The reciprocal of the BDSR mechanism also plays a role in T-phase excitation. To further understand the BDSR mechanism, the SPECFEM3D code was extended to handle high-frequency, deep water bottom scattering problems with actual bathymetry and a typical sound speed profile in the water column. The model size is 38km x 27km x 6.5km. The source is centered at 10Hz with a 5Hz bandwidth. Work supported by NSF and ONR.
    Description: The data acquisition was funded by the Office of Naval Research and the computer modeling using SPECFEM3D was supported by the National Science Foundation.
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Presentation
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2008. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences 65 (2008): 3316–3326, doi:10.1175/2008JAS2579.1.
    Description: The connection between transport barriers and potential vorticity (PV) barriers in PV-conserving flows is investigated with a focus on zonal jets in planetary atmospheres. A perturbed PV staircase model is used to illustrate important concepts. This flow consists of a sequence of narrow eastward and broad westward zonal jets with a staircase PV structure; the PV steps are at the latitudes of the cores of the eastward jets. Numerically simulated solutions to the quasigeostrophic PV conservation equation in a perturbed PV staircase flow are presented. These simulations reveal that both eastward and westward zonal jets serve as robust meridional transport barriers. The surprise is that westward jets, across which the background PV gradient vanishes, serve as robust transport barriers. A theoretical explanation of the underlying barrier mechanism is provided. It is argued that transport barriers near the cores of westward zonal jets, across which the background PV gradient is small, are found in Jupiter’s midlatitude weather layer and in the earth’s summer hemisphere subtropical stratosphere.
    Description: Support for this work was provided by the U.S. National Science Foundation under Grants CMG0417425 and OCE0648284.
    Keywords: Jets ; Planetary atmospheres ; Potential vorticity ; Stratosphere ; Vorticity
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
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    Acoustical Society of America
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2010. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 127 (2010): EL185-EL191, doi:10.1121/1.3327240.
    Description: The discrete form of the mode filtering problem is considered. The relevant equations constitute a linear inverse problem. Solutions to problems of this type are subject to a well-known trade-off between resolution and precision. But unlike the typical linear inverse problem, the correctly formulated mode filtering problem is subject to an energy conservation constraint. This letter focuses on the importance of satisfying, approximately at least, the energy conservation constraint when mode filtering is performed.
    Description: This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 321, Grant Nos. N000140610245 and N000140810195.
    Keywords: Acoustic signal processing ; Filters ; Underwater acoustic propagation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2012. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 131 (2012): EL492-EL498, doi:10.1121/1.4722193.
    Description: Motivated by measurements made in the 2004 Long-Range Ocean Acoustic Propagation Experiment (LOAPEX), the problem of mode processing transient acoustic signals collected on two nearby vertical line arrays is considered. The first three moments (centroid, variance, and skewness) of broadband distributions of acoustic energy with fixed mode number (referred to as modal group arrivals) are estimated. It is shown that despite the absence of signal coherence between the two arrays and poor high mode number energy resolution, the centroid and variance of these distributions can be estimated with tolerable errors using piecewise coherent mode processing as described in this paper.
    Description: This work was supported by the Office of Naval Research, Code 322, Grant Nos. N00014-06-1-0245, N00014-08-1-0195, and N00014-11-1-0194.
    Keywords: Acoustic arrays ; Acoustic signal processing ; Modal analysis ; Underwater acoustic propagation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Meteorological Society, 2014. This article is posted here by permission of American Meteorological Society for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Physical Oceanography 44 (2014): 834-849, doi:10.1175/JPO-D-13-0179.1.
    Description: A hydrostatic numerical model with alongshore-uniform barotropic M2 tidal boundary forcing and idealized shelfbreak canyon bathymetries is used to study internal-tide generation and onshore propagation. A control simulation with Mid-Atlantic Bight representative bathymetry is supported by other simulations that serve to identify specific processes. The canyons and adjacent slopes are transcritical in steepness with respect to M2 internal wave characteristics. Although the various canyons are symmetrical in structure, barotropic-to-baroclinic energy conversion rates Cυ are typically asymmetrical within them. The resulting onshore-propagating internal waves are the strongest along beams in the horizontal plane, with the stronger beam in the control simulation lying on the side with higher Cυ. Analysis of the simulation results suggests that the cross-canyon asymmetrical Cυ distributions are caused by multiple-scattering effects on one canyon side slope, because the phase variation in the spatially distributed internal-tide sources, governed by variations in the orientation of the bathymetry gradient vector, allows resonant internal-tide generation. A less complex, semianalytical, modal internal wave propagation model with sources placed along the critical-slope locus (where the M2 internal wave characteristic is tangent to the seabed) and variable source phasing is used to diagnose the physics of the horizontal beams of onshore internal wave radiation. Model analysis explains how the cross-canyon phase and amplitude variations in the locally generated internal tides affect parameters of the internal-tide beams. Under the assumption that strong internal tides on continental shelves evolve to include nonlinear wave trains, the asymmetrical internal-tide generation and beam radiation effects may lead to nonlinear internal waves and enhanced mixing occurring preferentially on one side of shelfbreak canyons, in the absence of other influencing factors.
    Description: All three authors were supported by Office of Naval Research (ONR) Grant N00014-11-1-0701. WGZ was additionally supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant OCE-1154575, and TFD was additionally supported by NSF Grant OCE-1060430.
    Description: 2014-09-01
    Keywords: Circulation/ Dynamics ; Baroclinic flows ; Internal waves ; Ocean circulation ; Topographic effects ; Waves, oceanic ; Models and modeling ; Numerical analysis/modeling
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2016-06-27
    Description: Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 2013. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 134 (2013): 3307-3317, doi:10.1121/1.4818845.
    Description: Ocean bottom seismometer observations at 5000 m depth during the long-range ocean acoustic propagation experiment in the North Pacific in 2004 show robust, coherent, late arrivals that are not readily explained by ocean acoustic propagation models. These “deep seafloor” arrivals are the largest amplitude arrivals on the vertical particle velocity channel for ranges from 500 to 3200 km. The travel times for six (of 16 observed) deep seafloor arrivals correspond to the sea surface reflection of an out-of-plane diffraction from a seamount that protrudes to about 4100 m depth and is about 18 km from the receivers. This out-of-plane bottom-diffracted surface-reflected energy is observed on the deep vertical line array about 35 dB below the peak amplitude arrivals and was previously misinterpreted as in-plane bottom-reflected surface-reflected energy. The structure of these arrivals from 500 to 3200 km range is remarkably robust. The bottom-diffracted surface-reflected mechanism provides a means for acoustic signals and noise from distant sources to appear with significant strength on the deep seafloor.
    Description: The OBS/Hs used in the LOAPEX field program were provided by Scripps Institution of Oceanography under the U.S. National Ocean Bottom Seismic Instrumentation Pool (SIO-OBSIP, http:// www.obsip.org). The OBS/H deployments themselves were co-funded through direct funding to SIO-OBSIP by the National Science Foundation and by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution under a grant from the WHOI Deep Ocean Exploration Institute. The LOAPEX source deployments and the moored DVLA receiver deployments were funded by the Office of Naval Research under Award Nos. N00014-03-1-0181 and N00014-03-1-0182. The data reduction and analysis in this paper were funded by the Office of Naval Research under Award Nos. N00014-06-1-0222 and N00014-10-1-0510. Additional post-cruise analysis support was provided to RAS through the Edward W. and Betty J. Scripps Chair for Excellence in Oceanography.
    Keywords: Acoustic arrays ; Acoustic noise ; Acoustic signal processing ; Acoustic wave reflection ; Acoustic wave velocity ; Long-range order ; Ocean waves ; Seafloor phenomena ; Seismometers ; Surface acoustic waves ; Surface energy ; Underwater acoustic propagation
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2018-01-10
    Description: © The Author(s), 2017. This is the author's version of the work. It is posted here under a nonexclusive, irrevocable, paid-up, worldwide license granted to WHOI. It is made available for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Sound and Vibration 400 (2017): 402-416, doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2017.03.035.
    Description: Modal pulses are broadband contributions to an acoustic wave field with fixed mode number. Stable weakly dispersive modal pulses (SWDMPs) are special modal pulses that are characterized by weak dispersion and weak scattering-induced broadening and are thus suitable for communications applications. This paper investigates, using numerical simulations, receiver array requirements for recovering information carried by SWDMPs under various signal-to-noise ratio conditions without performing channel equalization. Two groups of weakly dispersive modal pulses are common in typical mid-latitude deep ocean environments: the lowest order modes (typically modes 1–3 at 75 Hz), and intermediate order modes whose waveguide invariant is near-zero (often around mode 20 at 75 Hz). Information loss is quantified by the bit error rate (BER) of a recovered binary phase-coded signal. With fixed receiver depths, low BERs (less than 1%) are achieved at ranges up to 400 km with three hydrophones for mode 1 with 90% probability and with 34 hydrophones for mode 20 with 80% probability. With optimal receiver depths, depending on propagation range, only a few, sometimes only two, hydrophones are often sufficient for low BERs, even with intermediate mode numbers. Full modal resolution is unnecessary to achieve low BERs. Thus, a flexible receiver array of autonomous vehicles can outperform a cabled array.
    Keywords: Ocean acoustics ; Weakly dispersive modal pulses ; Long-range sound propagation ; Underwater communications
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Preprint
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