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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2006-10-26
    Description: Numerical solution of optimal control and programming problems
    Keywords: ELECTRONICS
    Format: text
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: Described in this paper is the method used in the Draper Remote Manipulator System (RMS) Simulation to compute linear accelerations at the point on the SPAS01 payload where its accelerometers are mounted. Simulated accelerometer output for representative on-orbit activities is presented. The objectives of post-flight analysis of SPAS01 data are discussed. Finally, the point is made that designers of acceleration-dependent payloads may have an interest in the capability of simulating the acceleration environment of payloads while under the control of the overall Payload Deployment and retrieval System (PDRS) that includes the Orbiter and its attitude control system as well as the Remote Manipulator Arm.
    Keywords: SPACE TRANSPORTATION
    Type: AIAA PAPER 83-2667
    Format: text
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A digital autopilot which can provide attitude control for the entire Skylab orbital assembly using the service module reaction control jets is described. An important consideration is the potential interaction of the control system with the bending modes of the orbital assembly. Two aspects of this potential interaction were considered. The first was the possibility that bending induced rotations feeding back through the attitude sensor into the control system could produce an instability or self-sustained oscillation. The second was whether the jet activity commanded by the control system could produce excessive loads at any of the critical load points of the orbital assembly. Both aspects were studied by using analytic techniques and by running simulations on the all-digital simulator.
    Keywords: SPACE VEHICLES
    Type: NASA-CR-128543 , E-2704
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 4
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    In:  Other Sources
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: In Project SKYLAB, the Command and Service Module which ferries astronaut crews to and from the Orbital Workshop is required to have the capability of providing attitude control for the entire Orbital Assembly during docked phases of the mission. A digital autopilot has been designed which meets this requirement. It is a direct descendant of the digital autopilot designed for and used extensively in project Apollo. There is a major difference however. For Apollo, it was reasonable to design an autopilot that treated the roll, pitch, and yaw axes independently. Because of the geometry of the Orbital Assembly, however, it is of considerable advantage to design the jet selection logic for SKYLAB such that the roll and pitch axes are treated as coupled, and also that the roll and yaw axes are treated as coupled. This paper discusses how inter-axis dependence has been incorporated in the Command and Service Module's digital autopilot while working within the limitations of the onboard computer.
    Keywords: NAVIGATION
    Type: The growth and maturity of navigation in space; National Space Meeting; Mar. 15-16, 1972; Orlando, FL
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: The present work examines some extensions of the digital autopilot (DAP) capability as programmed in the Apollo Command and Service Module (CSM) onboard computer. Design activity undertaken for a thrust vector control DAP to control a proposed main engine deorbit burn of CSM while still docked to the Orbital Workshop is discussed. The design, implementation, and testing of a reaction control system DAP for the docked Skylab configuration are described along with its adaptation to control of the Apollo/Soyuz docked configuration.
    Keywords: SPACECRAFT DESIGN, TESTING AND PERFORMANCE
    Type: International Federation of Automatic Control, Symposium on Automatic Control in Space; Aug. 26-31, 1974; Tsakhkadzor; Soviet Union
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-02-06
    Description: Soil organic carbon (SOC) is an important component of the global carbon cycle, yet is rarely quantified adequately in terms of its spatial variability resulting from losses of SOC due to erosion by water. Furthermore, in drylands, little is known about the effect of widespread vegetation change on changes in SOC stores and the potential for water erosion to redistribute SOC around the landscape especially during high-magnitude runoff events (flash floods). This study assesses the change in SOC stores across a shrub-encroachment gradient in the Chihuahuan Desert of the south west USA. A robust estimate of SOC storage in surface soils is presented, indicating that more SOC is stored beneath vegetation than in bare soil areas. In addition, the change in SOC storage over a shrub-encroachment gradient is shown to be non-linear and highly variable within each vegetation type. Over the gradient of vegetation change, heterogeneity of SOC increases and newer carbon from C 3 plants becomes dominant. This increase in heterogeneity of SOC is related to an increase in water erosion and SOC loss from intershrub areas, which is self-reinforcing. Shrub-dominated drylands lose more than three times as much SOC as their grass counterparts. The implications of this study are twofold: 1. Quantifying the effects of vegetation change on carbon loss via water erosion and the highly variable effects of land degradation on soil carbon stocks is critical. 2. If landscape scale understanding of carbon loss by water erosion in drylands is required, studies must characterise heterogeneity of ecosystem structure and its effects on ecosystem function across ecotones subject to vegetation change. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    Print ISSN: 0885-6087
    Electronic ISSN: 1099-1085
    Topics: Architecture, Civil Engineering, Surveying , Geography
    Published by Wiley
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2016-09-14
    Description: Independent estimates of fossil fuel CO2 (CO2ff) emissions are key to ensuring that emission reductions and regulations are effective and provide needed transparency and trust. Point source emissions are a key target because a small number of power plants represent a large portion of total global emissions. Currently, emission rates...
    Keywords: Sustainability Science
    Print ISSN: 0027-8424
    Electronic ISSN: 1091-6490
    Topics: Biology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-02-04
    Description: Experiments conducted at DIII-D investigate the role of drift kinetic damping and fast neutral beam injection (NBI)-ions in the approach to the no-wall β N limit. Modelling results show that the drift kinetic effects are significant and necessary to reproduce the measured plasma response at the ideal no-wall limit. Fast neutral-beam ions and rotation play important roles and are crucial to quantitatively match the experiment. In this paper, we report on the model validation of a series of plasmas with increasing β N , where the plasma stability is probed by active magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) spectroscopy. The response of the plasma to an externally applied field is used to probe the stable side of the resistive wall mode and obtain an indication of the proximity of the equilibrium to an instability limit. We describe the comparison between the measured plasma response and that calculated by means of the drift kinetic MARS-K code [Liu et al. , Phys. Plasmas 15 , 112503 (2008)], which includes the toroidal rotation, the electron and ion drift-kinetic resonances, and the presence of fast particles for the modelled plasmas. The inclusion of kinetic effects allows the code to reproduce the experimental results within ∼13% for both the amplitude and phase of the plasma response, which is a significant improvement with respect to the undamped MHD-only model. The presence of fast NBI-generated ions is necessary to obtain the low response at the highest β N levels (∼90% of the ideal no-wall limit). The toroidal rotation has an impact on the results, and a sensitivity study shows that a large variation in the predicted response is caused by the details of the rotation profiles at high β N .
    Print ISSN: 1070-664X
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7674
    Topics: Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2014-07-16
    Description: Polarimetry has been added to the full aperture backscatter diagnostic on the NIF. Wollaston prisms are used to sample a small region of a beam's backscatter, effectively separating it into two linear polarizations, one of which is parallel to the incident beam. A time-averaged measurement of each polarization is obtained by imaging the separated spots off of a scatter plate. Results have improved understanding of crossed beam energy transfer, glint, and sidescatter, and motivated plans to upgrade to a time-resolved polarimeter measuring the full Stokes vector.
    Print ISSN: 0034-6748
    Electronic ISSN: 1089-7623
    Topics: Electrical Engineering, Measurement and Control Technology , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1941-08-01
    Print ISSN: 0002-7820
    Electronic ISSN: 1551-2916
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Published by Wiley on behalf of American Ceramic Society.
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