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  • 1
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    Unknown
    In:  [Poster] In: IAVCEI 1902 Centennial Workshop, 12.-16.05.2002, Mount Pelee, Martinique .
    Publication Date: 2019-04-26
    Type: Conference or Workshop Item , NonPeerReviewed
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0819
    Keywords: Pre-eruptive caldera collapse Proto-caldera Rum igneous complex Intracaldera stratigraphy Ignimbrite feeder dykes Caldera resurgence
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract. The Northern Marginal Zone of the Rum Central Igneous Complex in NW Scotland represents part of the early, felsic phase of the volcano. The marginal zone is a relic of the early caldera floor and the infilling of sedimentary and igneous rocks. Its formation has been explored through field examination of the ring fracture system of the Complex and its pyroclastic and epiclastic intracaldera facies. A sequence of magmatic tumescence and chamber growth caused initial doming, followed by the formation of a collapse structure without accompanying volcanism. This collapse structure, circular in plan, is akin in origin to a salt basin formed by crustal stretching above a rising diapir. We call this the proto-caldera. Collapse breccias, which represent the slumping and sliding of megablocks, blocks and boulders of the Torridonian sandstones which form the walls of the basin, were the original infilling. Logs of these deposits reveal considerable variation in thickness of the breccias (from 80–170 m) in the Complex, indicating an uneven floor to the proto-caldera, consistent with piecemeal collapse. Following accumulation of up to 〉70 m thickness of breccia, thin interbedded rhyodacitic crystal tuffs (10–30 cm) record the earliest eruptions of felsic magma in the caldera. Caldera formation was then interrupted by a period of quiescence, recorded by the presence of an epiclastic sandstone of locally several metres thickness, formed by washout of fines from the breccias. Subsequent resurgence created a fracture pattern characteristic of doming, along which rhyodacite magma rose in dykes and erupted up to perhaps 10 km3 of rhyodacitic intracaldera ignimbrites. This major eruption caused further incremental subsidence of the caldera floor into a now partly emptied magma chamber. Mafic inclusions in the ignimbrites point to the eruption being triggered by multiple injections of basic magma into a chamber occupied by felsic magma.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-05
    Description: A submarine eruption started off the south coast of El Hierro, Canary Islands, on 10 October 2011 and continues at the time of this writing (February 2012). In the first days of the event, peculiar eruption products were found floating on the sea surface, drifting for long distances from the eruption site. These specimens, which have in the meantime been termed "restingolites" (after the close-by village of La Restinga), appeared as black volcanic "bombs" that exhibit cores of white and porous pumice-like material. Since their brief appearance, the nature and origin of these "floating stones" has been vigorously debated among researchers, with important implications for the interpretation of the hazard potential of the ongoing eruption. The "restingolites" have been proposed to be either (i) juvenile high-silica magma (e.g. rhyolite), (ii) remelted magmatic material (trachyte), (iii) altered volcanic rock, or (iv) reheated hyaloclastites or zeolite from the submarine slopes of El Hierro. Here, we provide evidence that supports yet a different conclusion. We have analysed the textures and compositions of representative "restingolites" and compared the results to previous work on similar rocks found in the Canary Islands. Based on their high-silica content, the lack of igneous trace element signatures, the presence of remnant quartz crystals, jasper fragments and carbonate as well as wollastonite (derived from thermal overprint of carbonate) and their relatively high oxygen isotope values, we conclude that "restingolites" are in fact xenoliths from pre-island sedimentary layers that were picked up and heated by the ascending magma, causing them to partially melt and vesiculate. As they are closely resembling pumice in appearance, but are xenolithic in origin, we refer to these rocks as "xeno-pumice". The El Hierro xeno-pumices hence represent messengers from depth that help us to understand the interaction between ascending magma and crustal lithologies beneath the Canary Islands as well as in similar Atlantic islands that rest on sediment-covered ocean crust (e.g. Cape Verdes, Azores). The occurrence of "restingolites" indicates that crustal recycling is a relevant process in ocean islands, too, but does not herald the arrival of potentially explosive high-silica magma in the active plumbing system beneath El Hierro.
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  • 4
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Springer
    In:  Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166 (1). pp. 43-63.
    Publication Date: 2016-09-21
    Description: Mt. Merapi in Central Java is one of the most active stratovolcanoes on Earth and is underlain by a multistage plumbing system. Crystal size distribution analyses (CSD) were carried out on recent Merapi basaltic-andesites and co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions to characterise the crystallisation processes that operate during storage and ascent and to obtain information on respective time scales. The basaltic-andesites exhibit log-linear, kinked-upwards CSD curves for plagioclase and clinopyroxene that can be separated into two main textural populations. Large plagioclase phenocrysts (≥1.6 mm) make up one population, but correspond to crystals with variable geochemical composition and reflect a period of crystal growth at deep to mid-crustal levels. This population was subsequently influenced by crystal accumulation and the onset of crustal assimilation, including the incorporation of high-Ca skarn-derived xenocrysts. Textural re-equilibration is required for these crystals to form a single population in CSD. A second episode of crystal growth at shallower levels is represented by chemically homogenous plagioclase crystals 〈1.6 mm in size. Crustal assimilation is indicated by, for example, oxygen isotopes and based on the CSD data, crystallisation combined with contamination is likely semi-continuous in these upper crustal storage chambers. The CSD data observed in the basaltic-andesite samples are remarkably consistent and require a large-volume steady state magmatic system beneath Merapi in which late textural equilibration plays a significant role. Plagioclase CSDs of co-eruptive magmatic and plutonic inclusions may contain a third crystal population (〈1 mm) not found in the lavas. This third population has probably formed from enhanced degassing of portions of basaltic-andesite magma at shallow crustal levels which resulted in increased crystallinity and basaltic-andesite mush inclusions. A suite of coarse plutonic inclusions is also present that reflects crystallisation and accumulation of crystals in the deep Merapi plumbing system, as deduced from CSD patterns and mineral assemblages.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 5
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    Unknown
    Elsevier
    In:  Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research, 144 (1-4). pp. 119-136.
    Publication Date: 2017-09-15
    Description: Caldera volcanoes form due to collapse of a magma chamber roof into the underlying magma chamber. Many field, theoretical and experimental studies have postulated that calderas are delimited by reverse ring faults and are surrounded by peripheral concentric normal faults. In the simplest theoretical scenario, circular magma chambers produce circular calderas. Many calderas, however, are elliptical in shape, particularly those in extensional and compressive tectonic settings. Several factors may explain elliptical calderas. The first is the presence of an elliptical magma chamber, established by, for instance, preferential intrusion along pre-existing basement structures or differential spalling of the magma chamber walls. The second is the overlap (nesting) of several discrete calderas to form a single, larger elliptical structure. The third is asymmetric subsidence. The fourth is variable pre-collapse topography. A fifth possible factor is distortion of the caldera faults by the regional stress field during caldera formation. A sixth factor is the post-collapse distortion of the caldera structure due to continued regional deformation. To better understand relationships between caldera surface expression, reservoir geometry and regional tectonic stresses, we conducted scaled analogue experiments. These experiments examined the impact of regional stress and associated structures on calderas formed during evacuation of reservoirs (circular rubber balloons) of known dimensions and depths. The results show that, in principle, calderas produced in compression/extension experiments are elongated parallel to the direction of minimum horizontal compressive stress, despite the chamber beneath being circular in plan view. As a consequence, model ring fault orientation varied from steeply dipping where striking perpendicular to the minimum horizontal regional compressive stress, to shallower dips where striking parallel to the minimum horizontal regional compressive stress. This leads us to suggest that the influence of a regional stress field on caldera fault orientation during and/or after caldera formation may be significant in the development of elliptical calderas. In addition, such variation of caldera ring fault dip from steep to relatively shallow could influence location and behaviour of ring fissure eruptions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2018-05-29
    Description: The relationship between rift zones and flank instability in ocean island volcanoes is often inferred but rarely documented. Our field data, aerial image analysis, and 40Ar/39Ar chronology from Anaga basaltic shield volcano on Tenerife, Canary Islands, support a rift zone—flank instability relationship. A single rift zone dominated the early stage of the Anaga edifice (~6–4.5 Ma). Destabilization of the northern sector led to partial seaward collapse at about ~4.5 Ma, resulting in a giant landslide. The remnant highly fractured northern flank is part of the destabilized sector. A curved rift zone developed within and around this unstable sector between 4.5 and 3.5 Ma. Induced by the dilatation of the curved rift, a further rift-arm developed to the south, generating a three-armed rift system. This evolutionary sequence is supported by elastic dislocation models that illustrate how a curved rift zone accelerates flank instability on one side of a rift, and facilitates dike intrusions on the opposite side. Our study demonstrates a feedback relationship between flank instability and intrusive development, a scenario probably common in ocean island volcanoes. We therefore propose that ocean island rift zones represent geologically unsteady structures that migrate and reorganize in response to volcano flank instability.
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2018-05-29
    Description: Edifices of stratocones and domes are often situated eccentrically above shallow silicic magma reservoirs. Evacuation of such reservoirs forms collapse calderas commonly surrounded by remnants of one or several volcanic cones that appear variously affected and destabilized. We studied morphologies of six calderas in Kamchatka, Russia, with diameters of 4 to 12 km. Edifices affected by caldera subsidence have residual heights of 250–800 m, and typical amphitheater-like depressions opening toward the calderas. The amphitheaters closely resemble horseshoe-shaped craters formed by large-scale flank failures of volcanoes with development of debris avalanches. Where caldera boundaries intersect such cones, the caldera margins have notable outward embayments. We therefore hypothesize that in the process of caldera formation, these eccentrically situated edifices were partly displaced and destabilized, causing large-scale landslides. The landslide masses are then transformed into debris avalanches and emplaced inside the developing caldera basins. To test this hypothesis, we carried out sand-box analogue experiments, in which caldera formation (modeled by evacuation of a rubber balloon) was simulated. The deformation of volcanic cones was studied by placing sand-cones in the vicinity of the expected “caldera” rim. At the initial stage of the modeled subsidence, the propagating ring fault of the caldera bifurcates within the affected cone into two faults, the outermost of which is notably curved outward off the caldera center. The two faults dissect the cone into three parts: (1) a stable outer part, (2) a highly unstable and subsiding intracaldera part, and (3) a subsiding graben structure between parts (1) and (2). Further progression of the caldera subsidence is likely to cause failure of parts (2) and (3) with failed material sliding into the caldera basin and with formation of an amphitheater-like depression oriented toward the developing caldera. The mass of material which is liable to slide into the caldera basin, and the shape of the resulted amphitheater are a function of the relative position of the caldera ring fault and the base of the cone. A cone situated mostly outside the ring fault is affected to a minor degree by caldera subsidence and collapses with formation of a narrow amphitheater deeply incised into the cone, having a small opening angle. Accordingly, the caldera exhibits a prominent outward embayment. By contrast, collapse of a cone initially situated mostly inside the caldera results in a broad amphitheater with a large opening angle, i.e. the embayment of the caldera rim is negligible. The relationships between the relative position of an edifice above the caldera fault and the opening angle of the formed amphitheater are similar for the modeled and the natural cases of caldera/cone interactions. Thus, our experiments support the hypothesis that volcanic edifices affected by caldera subsidence can experience large-scale failures with formation of indicative amphitheaters oriented toward the caldera basins. More generally, the scalloped appearance of boundaries of calderas in contact with pre-caldera topographic highs can be explained by the gravitational influence of topography on the process of caldera formation.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-02-27
    Description: Using Pb isotope ratios we compare crustal contamination of primitive to evolved magmas from the Ardnamurchan and nearby Rum Igneous Centres, located on different crustal provinces in the British Tertiary Igneous Province (BTIP). The results confirm that compositional variations of parental cone-sheet magmas in Ardnamurchan can be explained by assimilation of granulite facies Lewisian gneiss at moderate crustal levels and subsequent contamination of evolved magmas with Moine schist metasediments within the uppermost crust during fractional crystallization. In contrast, samples from the Rum Centre have an uncontaminated mantle signature for the basaltic end-member, whereas the evolved rocks show Pb isotope evidence of contamination by Lewisian amphibolite facies rocks. Rum is separated from Ardnamurchan by a major thrust. The absence of a Moine-type isotopic influence in the Rum rocks supports an earlier interpretation, based on field evidence, that these overthrust rocks were eroded from Rum prior to the Palaeocene magmatic activity.
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-11-14
    Description: Miocene Ignimbrite ‘A’ on Gran Canaria contains three compositional endmember fiamme types(two rhyolites and one trachyte) each of which crystallized distinct feldspar. Various textural and compositional criteria are interpreted as reflecting a complex scenario within the magma chamber in which the crystals formed. About 25–30% of the feldspar phenocrysts contain evidence for magma mixing in the form of (1) partial to severe dissolution–resorption rims, (2) distinct zones of drastically different compositions and (3) overgrowth textures on formerly resorbed crystals. Four major types of zoning in the oligoclase to anorthoclase feldspars of ignimbrite ‘A’ include a normal and a reversely zoned type and two complexly zoned types. The feldspars with normal and reverse zonation show only minor compositional amplitudes between individual zones (ΔAb, Or ∼4%), whereas the complexly zoned types show compositional differences between zones of up to 18 mol % Ab and 20 mol % Or and are commonly associated with an internal dissolution surface. Complex zoning with large compositional amplitudes and dissolution textures is taken as evidence of crystal movements within the magma and across compositional boundaries between magma batches. A multiple ‘step-cycle’ model, involving growth and transport of a crystal into another magma batch and its return to the original host magma, is suggested by the data. Moreover, feldspars from one rhyolite compositional group are found to be substantially elevated in δ18O, suggesting an input of a high δ18O component to this rhyolite. The other endmember rhyolite appears to be related to the endmember trachyte by mainly crystal fractionation of anorthoclase feldspar. This observation is consistent with trace element and rare earth element concentrations for the magma endmembers and their feldspars, where contamination led to a depletion in incompatible trace elements and light rare earth elements in the contaminated rhyolite and its feldspar phenocrysts. We suggest that the combination of textural and compositional variation in ternary feldspar of peralkaline rhyolitic systems is well suited to reconstruct dynamic processes such as magma mixing and contamination in evolving rhyolitic magma chambers.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-09-23
    Description: Large-scale, catastrophic mass wasting is a major process contributing to the dismantling of oceanic intraplate volcanoes. Recent studies, however, have highlighted a possible feedback relationship between flank collapse, or incipient instability, and subsequent episodes of structural rearrangement and/or renewed volcano growth. The Teno massif, located in northwestern Tenerife (Canary Islands), is a deeply eroded Miocene shield volcano that was built in four major eruptive phases punctuated by two lateral collapses, each removing 〉20–25 km3 of the volcano's north flank. In this paper, we use detailed field observations and petrological and geochemical data to evaluate possible links between large-scale landslides and subsequent volcanism/magmatism during Teno's evolution. Inspection of key stratigraphic sequences reveals that steep angular unconformities, relics of paleolandslide scars, are marked by polymict breccias. Near their base, these deposits typically include abundant juvenile pyroclastic material, otherwise scarce in the region. While some of Teno's most evolved, low-density magmas were produced just before flank collapses, early postlandslide lava sequences are characterized by anomalously high proportions of dense ankaramite flows, extremely rich in clinopyroxene and olivine crystals. A detailed sampling profile shows transitions from low-Mg # lavas relatively rich in SiO2 to lavas with low silica content and comparatively high Mg # after both landslides. Long-term variations in Zr/Nb, normative nepheline, and La/Lu are coupled but do not show a systematic correlation with stratigraphic boundaries. We propose that whereas loading of the growing precollapse volcano promoted magma stagnation and differentiation, the successive giant landslides modified the shallow volcano-tectonic stress field at Teno, resulting in widespread pyroclastic eruptions and shallow magma reservoir drainage. This rapid unloading of several tens of km3 of near-surface rocks appears to have upset magma differentiation processes, while facilitating the remobilization and tapping of denser ankaramite magmas that were stored in the uppermost mantle. Degrees of mantle melting coincidently reached a maximum in the short time interval between the two landslides and declined shortly after, probably reflecting intrinsic plume processes rather than a collapse-induced influence on mantle melting. Our study of Teno volcano bears implications for other oceanic volcanoes where short-term compositional variations may also directly relate to major flank collapse events.
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