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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Cambridge [u.a.] : Cambridge University Press
    Call number: AWI A13-92-0466 ; PIK N 456-93-0113
    Description / Table of Contents: Contents: Preface. - Acknowledgements. - The authors. - Acronyms. - Notation. - Physical constants. - PART 1: INTRODUCTION. - 1 Introduction to climate modeling. - 2 Human components of the climate system. - PART 2: THE SCIENCE: SUBSYSTEMS AND PROCESSES. - 3 The atmosphere. - 4 The ocean circulation. - 5 Land surface. - 6 Terrestrial ecosystems. - 7 Atmospheric chemistry. - 8 Marine biogeochemistry. - PART 3: MODELING AND PARAMETERIZATION. - 9 Climate system simulation: basic numerical & computational concepts. - 10 Atmospheric general circulation modeling. - 11 Ocean general circulation modeling. - 12 Sea ice models. - 13 Land ice and climate. - 14 Biophysical models of land surface processes. - 15 Chemistry-transport models. - 16 Biogeochemical ocean models. - PART 4: COUPLINGS AND INTERACTIONS. - 17 Global coupled models: atmosphere, ocean, sea ice. - 18 Tropical pacific ENSO models: ENSO as a mode of the coupled system. - PART 5: SENSITIVITY EXPERIMENTS AND APPLICATIONS. - 19 Climate variability simulated in GCMs. - 20 Climate-model responses to increased CO2 and other greenhouse gases. - 21 Modeling large climatic changes of the past. - 22 Changes in land use. - PART 6: FUTURE PROSPECTS. - 26 Climate system modeling prospects. - References. - Index
    Description / Table of Contents: It is now widely recognized that human activities are transforming the global environment. What will be the changes in climate caused by anthropogenic influences and how do these compare with natural variations? To address these questions there is an urgent need to understand and model the global climate system effectively. A central role of climate system models will be to help determine possible impacts and help guide possible future policies. Climate System Modeling provides a thorough grounding in climate dynamics and the issues involved but also the mathematical, physical, chemical and biological basis for the component models and the sources of uncertainty, the assumptions made and approximations introduced. Climate system models go beyond climate models to include all aspects of the climate system: the atmosphere, the ocean, the cryosphere (including snow, sea ice, and glaciers), the biosphere and terrestrial ecosystems, other land surface processes and additional parts of the hydrosphere including ricers, and all the complex interactions between these components. The biogeochemical cycles in both the atmosphere and the ocean are dealt with in detail, potentially allowing the carbon cycle, for instance, to be treated with some veracity. Instead of projecting and specifying what future atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane might be, the goal of these models is to deal comprehensively with the carbon cycle and predict the future evolution of greenhouse gas concentrations, as well as the impact of those changes on the physical climate. Climate System Modeling is a comprehensive text which will appeal to students and researchers concerned with any aspect of climate and the study of related topics in the earth and environmental sciences.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XXIX, 788 S. : graph. Darst.
    ISBN: 0521432316
    Branch Library: AWI Library
    Branch Library: PIK Library
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  • 2
    Series available for loan
    Series available for loan
    Boulder, Colo. : National Center for Atmospheric Research [u.a.]
    Associated volumes
    Call number: AWI A5-04-0045
    In: NCAR technical notes
    Type of Medium: Series available for loan
    Pages: 82 S.
    Series Statement: NCAR technical notes 299 : STR
    Note: Table of Contents: Preface. - Acknowledgments. - 1. Introduction. - 2. The evolution of GDAS. - 3. The NMC data set. - 4. Internal consistency. - 5. Problems with individual analyses. - 6. 15 day averages. - 7. Discussion and conclusions. - References. - Appendix I Acronyms. - Appendix II Summary of NMC operational changes. - Appendix III Impact of NMC operational changes. - Appendix IV Missing data. - Appendix V Bad/suspicious NMC data. - Appendix VI Trends/changes in NMC data.
    Location: AWI Reading room
    Branch Library: AWI Library
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-01-05
    Description: There have been decades, such as 2000–2009, when the observed globally averaged surface-temperature time series shows little increase or even a slightly negative trend1 (a hiatus period). However, the observed energy imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere for this recent decade indicates that a net energy flux into the climate system of about 1 W m−2 (refs 2, 3) should be producing warming somewhere in the system4,5. Here we analyse twenty-first-century climate-model simulations that maintain a consistent radiative imbalance at the top-of-atmosphere of about 1 W m−2 as observed for the past decade. Eight decades with a slightly negative global mean surface-temperature trend show that the ocean above 300 m takes up significantly less heat whereas the ocean below 300 m takes up significantly more, compared with non-hiatus decades. The model provides a plausible depiction of processes in the climate system causing the hiatus periods, and indicates that a hiatus period is a relatively common climate phenomenon and may be linked to La Niña-like conditions.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
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    American Meteorological Society
    In:  Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 78 (12). pp. 2771-2777.
    Publication Date: 2019-03-07
    Description: A review is given of the meaning of the term “El Niño” and how it has changed in time, so there is no universal single definition. This needs to be recognized for scientific uses, and precision can only be achieved if the particular definition is identified in each use to reduce the possibility of misunderstanding. For quantitative purposes, possible definitions are explored that match the El Niños identified historically after 1950, and it is suggested that an El Niño can be said to occur if 5-month running means of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region (5°N–5°S, 120°–170°W) exceed 0.4°C for 6 months or more. With this definition, El Niños occur 31% of the time and La Niñas (with an equivalent definition) occur 23% of the time. The histogram of Niño 3.4 SST anomalies reveals a bimodal character. An advantage of such a definition is that it allows the beginning, end, duration, and magnitude of each event to be quantified. Most El Niños begin in the northern spring or perhaps summer and peak from November to January in sea surface temperatures.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2018-03-02
    Description: © The Author(s), 2018. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Earth's Future 6 (2018): 80–102, doi:10.1002/2017EF000627.
    Description: Climate observations are needed to address a large range of important societal issues including sea level rise, droughts, floods, extreme heat events, food security, and freshwater availability in the coming decades. Past, targeted investments in specific climate questions have resulted in tremendous improvements in issues important to human health, security, and infrastructure. However, the current climate observing system was not planned in a comprehensive, focused manner required to adequately address the full range of climate needs. A potential approach to planning the observing system of the future is presented in this article. First, this article proposes that priority be given to the most critical needs as identified within the World Climate Research Program as Grand Challenges. These currently include seven important topics: melting ice and global consequences; clouds, circulation and climate sensitivity; carbon feedbacks in the climate system; understanding and predicting weather and climate extremes; water for the food baskets of the world; regional sea-level change and coastal impacts; and near-term climate prediction. For each Grand Challenge, observations are needed for long-term monitoring, process studies and forecasting capabilities. Second, objective evaluations of proposed observing systems, including satellites, ground-based and in situ observations as well as potentially new, unidentified observational approaches, can quantify the ability to address these climate priorities. And third, investments in effective climate observations will be economically important as they will offer a magnified return on investment that justifies a far greater development of observations to serve society's needs.
    Keywords: Climate observations ; Climate Observing System Simulation Experiments ; Value of information ; Economic value ; Grand challenges
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Theoretical models predict that, in the absence of moisture limitation, extreme precipitation intensity could exponentially increase with temperatures at a rate determined by the Clausius-Clapeyron (C-C) relationship. Climate models project a continuous increase of precipitation extremes for the twenty-first century over most of the globe. However, some station observations suggest a negative scaling of extreme precipitation with very high temperatures, raising doubts about future increase of precipitation extremes. Here we show for the present-day climate over most of the globe,the curve relating daily precipitation extremes with local temperatures has a peak structure, increasing as expected at the low medium range of temperature variations but decreasing at high temperatures. However, this peak-shaped relationship does not imply a potential upper limit for future precipitation extremes. Climate models project both the peak of extreme precipitation and the temperature at which it peaks (T(sub peak)) will increase with warming; the two increases generally conform to the C-C scaling rate in mid- and high-latitudes,and to a super C-C scaling in most of the tropics. Because projected increases of local mean temperature (T(sub mean)) far exceed projected increases of T(sub peak) over land, the conventional approach of relating extreme precipitation to T(sub mean) produces a misleading sub-C-C scaling rate.
    Keywords: Earth Resources and Remote Sensing; Meteorology and Climatology
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN39945 , NATURE CLIMATE CHANGE (ISSN 1758-678X) (e-ISSN 1758-6798); 7; 4; 268-274
    Format: text
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: The causes and physical mechanisms involved in the 1988 North American drought are investigated. The issue of when the drought circulation anomalies developed and their relation to changes in tropical Pacific SSTs is examined. The evolution of the Pacific SSTs and tropical convection, as revealed by outgoing LW radiation, is shown to be consistent with the development of the conditions favorable for initiating the drought circulation pattern in April through June of 1988. On the equator at 110 deg W, SST anomalies exceeded -2.75 C only in April, May, and June, and were largest (-4.1 C) in May 1988. Diagnostic calculations of atmospheric diabatic heating confirm that atmospheric heating anomalies existed in the tropical Pacific in association with the major SST anomalies during this time. It is argued that feedback-caused soil moisture anomalies were secondary sources for the drought circulation but could not have been the primary instigator.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 159-172
    Format: text
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-08-28
    Description: The paper presents a new global 2 deg x 2 deg monthly sea surface temperature (SST) climatology, referred here to as the Shea-Trenberth-Reynolds (STR) climatology, which was derived by modifying a 1950-1979-based SST climatology from the Climate Analysis Center (CAC), by using data from the Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set to improve the SST estimates in the regions of the Kuroshio and the Gulf Stream. A comparison of the STR climatology with the Alexander and Mobley SST climatology showed that the STR climatology is warmer in the Northern Hemisphere, and colder poleward of 45 deg S.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 9; p. 987-1001.
    Format: text
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-08-27
    Description: The accuracy of the global surface air temperature (SST) estimates for a particular month over the past decade is assessed using all of the in situ observations available today. The sources of noise in the data, the numbers of observations, and the spatial coverage are appraised for the comparison with the climate signal, and different analyzed results are compared to determine their reproducibility. The data are further evaluated by comparing anomalies of near-global monthly mean surface temperatures with those of global satellite channel 2 microwave sounding unit temperatures for 144 months from 1979 to 1990. The results indicate that the inherent noise level in an SST observation is about 1.0 C, and this is compounded when the observation is made in regions of large temperature gradient.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 12; p. 1405-1423.
    Format: text
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-08-14
    Description: The usefulness of global satellite sounding data for monitoring climate was assessed by comparing monthly mean brightness temperature anomalies derived from channel 2 of the microwave sounding units (MSUs) on board NOAA satellites over the past decade with both weighted and pressure-level ECMWF monthly mean temperatures for 96 months from 1982 to 1989. Results show that very good agreement exists between the MSU and the weighted ECMWF temperatures over the period considered, with grid-point correlations exceeding 0.85. Comparisons with individual pressure-level temperatures from ECMWF showed high correlations at 300 mb over most of the globe.
    Keywords: METEOROLOGY AND CLIMATOLOGY
    Type: Journal of Climate (ISSN 0894-8755); 5; 12; p. 1424-1440.
    Format: text
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