ALBERT

All Library Books, journals and Electronic Records Telegrafenberg

feed icon rss

Your email was sent successfully. Check your inbox.

An error occurred while sending the email. Please try again.

Proceed reservation?

Export
  • 1
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: The NOAA National Underseas Research Program at Rutgers University is establishing a Long-term Ecosystem Observatory off New Jersey in 15 meters of water. As part of a bottom boundary layer study at this site, WHOI deployed a bottom instrument frame during the winter of 1993-94. The bottom instrument carried a current meter, a vertical array of optical back scattering sensors, temperature, pressure and conductivity sensors and an Acoustical Backscattering Sensor. The deployment was partially successful as the acoustic system failed. The other instrumentation worked well for 3 weeks returning data on winter conditions at the site. The extreme winter waves ended the experiment by tipping the instrument over on its side. The optical instrumentation was calibrated with sediment from the site, and the results from the experiment presented.
    Description: Funding was provided by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration through Contract No. 4-25020 to Rutgers/SUNY National Underseas Research Program.
    Keywords: Sediment transport ; LEO-15 ; Acoustic backscatter
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Technical Report
    Format: 2848458 bytes
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 2
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © IEEE, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of IEEE for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 32 (2007): 150-166, doi:10.1109/JOE.2007.890956.
    Description: Several experiments to measure postimpact burial of seafloor mines by scour and fill have been conducted near the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO, Edgartown, MA). The sedimentary environment at MVCO consists of a series of rippled scour depressions (RSDs), which are large scale bedforms with alternating areas of coarse and fine sand. This allows simultaneous mine burial experiments in both coarse and fine sand under almost identical hydrodynamic forcing conditions. Two preliminary sets of mine scour burial experiments were conducted during winters 2001?2002 in fine sand and 2002?2003 in coarse sand with a single optically instrumented mine in the field of view of a rotary sidescan sonar. From October 2003 to April of 2004, ten instrumented mines were deployed along with several sonar systems to image mine behavior and to characterize bedform and oceanographic processes. In fine sand, the sonar imagery of the mines revealed that large scour pits form around the mines during energetic wave events. Mines fell into their own scour pits, aligned with the dominant wave crests and became level with the ambient seafloor after several energetic wave events. In quiescent periods, after the energetic wave events, the scour pits episodically infilled with mud. After several scour and infilling events, the scour pits were completely filled and a layer of fine sand covered both the mines and the scour pits, leaving no visible evidence of the mines. In the coarse sand, mines were observed to bury until the exposed height above the ripple crests was approximately the same as the large wave orbital ripple height (wavelengths of 50?125 cm and heights of 10?20 cm). A hypothesis for the physical mechanism responsible for this partial burial in the presence of large bedforms is that the mines bury until they present roughly the same hydrodynamic roughness as the orbital-scale bedforms present in coarse sand.
    Description: This work was supported in part by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under Grants N00014-01-10564 and N0004-01-1-0847, by the Department of Defense Presidential Early Career Award, and by the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) Core funding under Program 061115N.
    Keywords: Acoustic imaging ; Mine burial ; Scour ; Sediments
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 3
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2009. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 114 (2009): C05014, doi:10.1029/2008JC005006.
    Description: Wave-supported gravity-driven mudflow has been identified as a major offshore fine sediment transport mechanism of terrestrial sediment into the coastal ocean. This transport process essentially occurs within the wave boundary layer. In this study, wave-supported gravity-driven mudflow is investigated via a wave-phase-resolving high-resolution numerical model for fluid mud transport. The model results are verified with field observation of sediment concentration and near-bed flow velocities at Po prodelta. The characteristics of wave-supported gravity-driven mudflows are diagnosed by varying the bed erodibility, floc properties (fractal dimension), and rheological stresses in the numerical simulations. Model results for moderate concentration suggest that using an appropriately specified fractal dimension, the dynamics of wave-supported gravity-driven mudflow can be predicted without explicitly incorporating rheological stress. However, incorporating rheological stress makes the results less sensitive to prescribed fractal dimension. For high-concentration conditions, it is necessary to incorporate rheological stress in order to match observed intensity of downslope gravity-driven current. Model results are further analyzed to evaluate and calibrate simple parameterizations. Analysis suggests that when neglecting rheological stress, the drag coefficient decreases with increasing wave intensity and seems to follow a power law. However, when rheological stress is incorporated, the resulting drag coefficient is more or less constant (around 0.0013) for different wave intensities. Model results further suggest the bulk Richardson number has a magnitude smaller than 0.25 and is essentially determined by the amount of available soft mud (i.e., the erodibility), suggesting a supply limited condition for unconsolidated mud.
    Description: This study is supported by the Office of Naval Research grant N00014-09-1-0134 and grant N00014-06-1-0945 as part of the Community Sediment Transport Modeling System (CSTMS) through the National Oceanographic Partnership Program (NOPP). This study is also partially supported by National Science Foundation (OCE- 0644497).
    Keywords: Fluid mud ; Gravity flow ; Wave boundary layer
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2004. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 109 (2004): F02004, doi:10.1029/2003JF000096.
    Description: A 9 month time series of tripod-mounted optical and acoustic measurements of sediment concentration and bed elevation was used to examine depositional processes in relationship to hydrodynamic variables in the Hudson River estuary. A series of cores was also taken directly under and adjacent to the acoustic measurements to examine the relation between the depositional processes and the resulting fine-scale stratigraphy. The measurements reveal that deposition occurs as a result of sediment flux convergence behind a salinity front and that the accumulation rates are sufficient to deposit up to 25 cm of new high-porosity sediment in a single ebb-tidal phase. Subsequent dewatering and erosion reduces the thickness of the initial deposit to several centimeters. These depositional events were only observed on spring tides. Ten depositional events during two spring tidal cycles produced a seasonal deposit of 18 cm, consistent with estimates of seasonal deposition from cores. A proxy for near-bed suspended grain size variations was estimated from the combined acoustic and optical measurements, implying that the erosional processes resuspend only the finer-grained sediments, thus leaving behind silt and very fine grained sand beds. The thickness of the deposited homogenous clayey silt beds, and the vertical separation between beds interlaminated with silt and very fine sand, are roughly consistent with the acoustic measurements of changes in bed elevations during deposition and erosion. The variability in individual bed thickness is the result of variations of processes over an individual tidal cycle and is not a product of variations over the spring neap fortnightly timescale.
    Description: The authors would like to acknowledge the Hudson River Foundation, who provided funding for this work under grant 009/00A.
    Keywords: Sediment transport ; Estuarine processes ; Fluid mud
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 5
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2015. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research: Oceans 120 (2015): 1638–1681, doi:10.1002/2014JC010245.
    Description: Field observations from the spring of 2008 on the Louisiana shelf were used to elucidate the mechanisms of wave energy dissipation over a muddy seafloor. After a period of high discharge from the Atchafalaya River, acoustic measurements showed the presence of 20 cm thick mobile fluid-mud layers during and after wave events. While total wave energy dissipation (D) was greatest during the high energy periods, these periods had relatively low normalized attenuation rates (κ = Dissipation/Energy Flux). During declining wave-energy conditions, as the fluid-mud layer settled, the attenuation process became more efficient with high κ and low D. The transition from high D and low κ to high κ and low D was caused by a transition from turbulent to laminar flow in the fluid-mud layer as measured by a Pulse-coherent Doppler profiler. Measurements of the oscillatory boundary layer velocity profile in the fluid-mud layer during laminar flow reveal a very thick wave boundary layer with curvature filling the entire fluid-mud layer, suggesting a kinematic viscosity 2–3 orders of magnitude greater than that of clear water. This high viscosity is also consistent with a high wave-attenuation rates measured by across-shelf energy flux differences. The transition to turbulence was forced by instabilities on the lutocline, with wavelengths consistent with the dispersion relation for this two-layer system. The measurements also provide new insight into the dynamics of wave-supported turbidity flows during the transition from a laminar to turbulent fluid-mud layer.
    Description: This work was supported by Office of Naval Research Award N00014-06-1–0718, which was part of the ONR Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MUD-MURI): entitled ‘‘Mechanisms of Fluid-Mud Interactions Under Waves.’’ Additional support was provided by National Science Foundation grant 1059914.
    Description: 2015-09-19
    Keywords: Fluid mud ; Wave dissipation ; Laminar and turbulent wave boundary layers ; Lutocline instabilities ; Wave-supported turbidity flows
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 6
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Ocean Engineer at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution January 1994
    Description: In 1991 the Heard Island Feasibility Test demonstrated that it is possible to transmit coded acoustic signals nearly half way around the world. One of the key issues in the feasibility test was to determine the spatial structure of the received transmissions. In this thesis, data from the Canadian Defense Research Establishment Pacific horizontal line array is used to form an estimate of the directional power spectrum. This spectrum determines if any horizontal multipath is detectable. The preliminary signal conditioning, including frequency spectrum estimation and demodulation required before beamforming is described. Conventional and adaptive beamforming methods are examined with synthetic data to demonstrate the limitations on the directional spectrum results. The principle result of this work is that no stable horizontal multipath is evident. The mean arrival angle for the five hours of data analyzed is 212° ± 1.5°.
    Description: The Office of Naval Research provided funding for the author under the ONR fellowship program.
    Keywords: Signal processing ; Sound ; Hearing ; Underwater acoustics
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Thesis
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 7
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © IEEE, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of IEEE for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 32 (2007): 249-259, doi:10.1109/JOE.2007.890986.
    Description: The 3-D flow field and bed stress surrounding a short cylinder in response to combined wave and mean-flow forcing events is examined. Model simulations are performed with a 3-D nonhydrostatic computational fluid dynamics model, FLOW-3D. The model is forced with a range of characteristic tidal and wave velocities as observed in 12–15 m of water at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO, Edgartown, MA). The 2.4-m-long and 0.5-m diameter cylinder is buried 10% of the diameter on a flat, fixed bed. Regions of incipient motion are identified through local estimates of the Shields parameter exceeding the critical value. Potential areas of sediment deposition are identified with local estimates of the Rouse parameter exceeding ten. The model predictions of sediment response are in general in agreement with field observations of seabed morphology obtained over a one-week period during the 2003–2004 MVCO mine burial experiment. Both observations and simulations show potential transport occurring at the ends of the mine in wave-dominated events. Mean flows greater than 10 cm/s lead to the formation of larger scour pits upstream of the cylinder. Deposition in both cases tends to occur along the sides, near the center of mass of the mine. However, the fixed-bed assumption prohibits the prediction of full perimeter scour as is observed in nature. Predicted scour and burial regimes for a range of wave and mean-flow combinations are established.
    Description: This work was supported in part by the U.S. Office of Naval Research under the mine burial project N00014-00-1-0570. The work of K. A. Hatton was supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship.
    Keywords: Mine ; Scour ; Sediment transport
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 8
    Publication Date: 2017-01-05
    Description: Author Posting. © IEEE, 2007. This article is posted here by permission of IEEE for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering 32 (2007): 133-149, doi:10.1109/JOE.2007.890953.
    Description: High-resolution multibeam sonar and state-of-the- art data processing and visualization techniques have been used to quantify the evolution of seafloor morphology and the degree of burial of instrumented mines and mine-shapes as part of the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR, Arlington, VA) mine burial experiment at the Martha's Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO, Edgartown, MA). Four surveys were conducted over two years at the experiment site with a 455-kHz, Reson 8125 dynamically focused multibeam sonar. The region is characterized by shore-perpendicular alternating zones of coarse-grained sand with 5?25-cm-high, wave orbital-scale ripples, and zones of finer grained sands with smaller (2?5-cm-high) anorbital ripples and, on occasion, medium scale 10?20-cm-high, chaotic or hummocky bedforms. The boundaries between the zones appear to respond over periods of days to months to the predominant wave direction and energy. Smoothing and small shifts of the boundaries to the northeast take place during fair-weather wave conditions while erosion (scalloping of the boundary) and shifts to the north-northwest occur during storm conditions. The multibeam sonar was also able to resolve changes in the orientation and height of fields of ripples that were directly related to the differences in the prevailing wave direction and energy. The alignment of the small scale bedforms with the prevailing wave conditions appears to occur rapidly (on the order of hours or days) when the wave conditions exceed the threshold of sediment motion (most of the time for the fine sands) and particularly during moderate storm conditions. During storm events, erosional ?windows? to the coarse layer below appear in the fine-grained sands. These ?window? features are oriented parallel to the prevailing wave direction and reveal orbital-scale ripples that are oriented perpendicular to the prevailing wave direction. The resolution of the multibeam sonar combined with 3-D visualization techniques provided realistic looking images of both both instrumented and noninstrumented mines and mine-like objects (including bomb, Manta, and Rockan shapes) that were dimensionally correct and enabled unambiguous identification of the mine type. In two of the surveys (October and December 2004), the mines in the fine-grained sands scoured into local pits but were still perfectly visible and identifiable with the multibeam sonar. In the April 2004 survey, the mines were not visible and apparently were completely buried. In the coarse-grained sand zone, the mines were extremely difficult to detect after initial scour burial as the mines bury until they present the same hydrodynamic roughness as the orbital-scale bedforms and thus blend into the ambient ripple field. Given the relatively large, 3-D, spatial coverage of the multibeam sonar along with its ability to measure the depth of the seafloor and the depth and dimensions of the mine, it is possible to measure directly, the burial by depth and burial by surface area of the mines. The 3-D nature of the multibeam sonar data also allows the direct determination of the volume of material removed from a scour pit.
    Description: The work of L. A. Mayer, R. Raymond, G. Glang, P. Traykovski, and A. C. Trembanis was supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (ONR) under the Grants N00014-01-1-0847, N00014-01-10564, and N00014-03-1-0298. The work of M. D. Richardson was supported by the U.S. Office of Naval Research (NRL) under the Core funding. The work of L. A. Mayer, R. Raymond, and G. Gland was also supported by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) under the Grant NA17OG2285.
    Keywords: High-resolution seafloor mapping ; Hummocky bedforms ; Mine burial and detection ; Multibeam sonar ; Rippled scour depressions ; Sorted bedforms
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 9
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © Acoustical Society of America, 1996. This article is posted here by permission of Acoustical Society of America for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of the Acoustical Society of America 99 (1996): 822-830, doi:10.1121/1.414563.
    Description: In a recent paper, Lynch et al. used modal and ray based perturbation techniques to compare predicted variances of acoustic travel times due to internal waves to measured variances in the Barents Sea Polar Front experiment [Lynch et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 99, 803–821 (1996)]. One of the interesting results of this work is that the modal and ray travel-time variances are substantially different for rays and modes with the same grazing angle. Specifically, the maximum modal travel-time variance shows a resonant effect in which the variance increases with increasing frequency. Unlike the modal solution, the ray travel-time variance has a geometrically constrained maximum, independent of frequency. In this paper, the linear first-order solutions for the ray and modal variances due to the internal waves are reviewed, and in an Appendix the effects of the linearizing assumptions are examined. The ray and mode solutions are then shown to be consistent by considering a truncated sum of modes that constructively interfere along a geometric ray path. By defining the travel-time perturbation due to a truncated sum of modes, the travel-time variance of the modal sum is derived. With increasing frequency the maximum value of this variance converges to a frequency-independent result with a similar magnitude to the ray maximum variance.
    Keywords: Internal waves ; Oceanography ; Sound waves ; Travelling waves ; Underwater ; Wave propagation ; Barents Sea ; Ray trajectories ; Shallow–water equations ; Travel time
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
  • 10
    Publication Date: 2017-01-04
    Description: Author Posting. © American Geophysical Union, 2005. This article is posted here by permission of American Geophysical Union for personal use, not for redistribution. The definitive version was published in Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (2005): C09025, doi:10.1029/2004JC002727.
    Description: A large flood of the Eel River, northern California, created a thick sediment deposit between water depths of 50 and 70 m in January 1997. The freshwater plume, however, confined sediment delivery to water depths shallower than 30 m. Mechanisms proposed to explain the apparent cross-shelf transport include dispersal by oceanographic currents, resuspension by energetic waves, and gravitationally forced transport of a thin layer of fluidized mud. Field observations indicate that these processes were all active but cannot determine their relative significance or whether these mechanisms alone explain the location, size, and timing of deposition. Approximately 30% of the sediment delivered by the Eel River is accounted for in the midshelf mud bed and inner shelf, but the fate of the remaining 70% is uncertain. A three-dimensional, hydrodynamic model was used to examine potential mechanisms of sediment transport on the Eel River shelf. The model includes suspended sediment transport and was modified to account for a thin, near-bed layer of fluidized mud. It was used to simulate flood dispersal on the Eel River shelf, to compare the relative importance of transport within the near-bed fluid mud layer to suspended sediment transport, and to evaluate sediment budgets for floods. Settling properties of fine-grained sediment, both within the flood plume and the fluid mud layer, critically impact depositional patterns. To a lesser degree, wind-driven ocean currents influence the volume of sediment that escapes the shelf, and wave magnitude affects the cross-shelf location of flood deposits. Though dilute suspension accounts for a large fraction of total flux, cross-shelf transport by gravitational forcing appears necessary to produce a midshelf mud deposit similar in volume, location, and timing to those seen offshore of the Eel River.
    Description: The Office of Naval Research’s Coastal Geoscience Program supported this through program N0014-01-1-008.
    Keywords: Flood sediment dispersal ; Northern California shelf ; Sediment transport
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
    Format: application/pdf
    Location Call Number Expected Availability
    BibTip Others were also interested in ...
Close ⊗
This website uses cookies and the analysis tool Matomo. More information can be found here...