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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-1041
    Keywords: diclofenac ; dipyrone ; renal colic ; pain score ; vital signs
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine
    Notes: Summary A randomized, double-blind clinical trial in 50 patients was done to compare the efficacy and tolerance of single doses of intramuscular diclofenac 75 mg and dipyrone 2 g in acute renal colic. Both drugs were equally effective, but diclofenac was better in terms of complete relief of pain. Vital signs were affected according to the stress and pain.
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: free amino acids ; organogenic callus ; polyamines
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effect of exogenous proline (6 mM) and increasing NaCl doses (from 0.4 to 1.2% w/v) on the maintenance of organogenic and embryogenic callus lines derived from the salt-sensitive maize inbred W64Ao2 were studied. To this end, total protein, free amino acid and polyamine content were analyzed. The demand of exogenous nitrogen and especially of proline, even in the presence of salt, differed in the two types of morphogenic calluses. The total protein content of embryogenic calluses was higher in the presence of proline than in its absence, in all the cases studied. An opposite effect of proline was observed in organogenic calluses: the presence of proline and salt decreased significantly their protein content. With respect to amino acid and polyamine contents, the organogenic calluses showed physiological characteristics of salt-adaptation, whereas the embryogenic calluses were more sensitive to NaCl. Although endogenous proline increased in the organogenic calluses cultured in the presence of salt, in embryogenic calluses it only rose at the lowest salt concentration. Furthermore, the endogenous arginine content under saline conditions was higher in organogenic calluses. A compensatory effect between proline and polyamine metabolism related to the endogenous arginine content in response to salt stress was also observed. This effect differed in the two types of calluses.
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  • 3
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: benzyladenine ; light ; petals ; silver thiosulfate ; somatic embryogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The embryogenic capacity of Araujia sericifera petals and some of the factors involved in the induction of embryos was investigated. The influence of 6-benzyladenine and α-naphthalene acetic acid, light intensity (90 or 5 µmol m-2 s-1) and silver thiosulphate (inhibitor of ethylene action) were studied. It was found that petals are an easy system in which to induce somatic embryogenesis. Plants were recovered from somatic embryos. Although 6-benzyladenine is essential for inducing an efficient response, a high dosage increased callogenesis and reduced embryogenesis. The highest rate of embryogenesis is induced with high light intensity (90–100 µmol m-2 s-1), even though the presence of silver thiosulphate in the medium markedly reduced embryo induction.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: embryogenic Type 1 callus ; free amino acids ; somatic embryogenesis
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract The effects of four exogenous amino acids (proline, glycine, asparagine and serine) on the production of maize embryogenic callus and on its endogenous amino acid content have been investigated. For this purpose, an established embryogenic line of Type 1 callus from the inbred W64Ao2 has been used. From the results it may be concluded that a concentration of proline exceeding 6 mM is negative for the production of embryogenic callus. When proline is eliminated from the medium, other amino acids tested in certain concentrations yield a percentage of embryogenic callus production that exceeds or equals that of proline. The endogenous free proline content in embryogenic callus is significantly higher than that in non-embryogenic callus regardless of proline presence in the medium. The only exception are the glycine-containing media, in which endogenous free alanine of embryogenic callus increases at the expense of endogenous free proline. This study suggest a positive role of endogenous free proline or alanine accumulation in the embryogenic callus production which might be related to an adaptation to the metabolic changes produced by in vitro culture and embryogenesis induction. Furthermore, these results indicate that treatments with amino acids that are different from proline can be used to improve the efficiency of embryogenic callus production from well established maize callus cultures.
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: cotyledons ; friable calluses ; somatic embryos ; cell suspensions
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract This work presents the preliminary results of in vitro studies with Araujia sericifera, which is cultivated for ornamental purposes. Immature seeds from wild plants were used to start the cultures. Somatic embryos and friable embryogenic calluses were obtained from white cotyledons in media containing naphthaleneacetic acid and benzyladenine or 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid. Plants were regenerated from these somatic embryos. Cell suspensions obtained from friable calluses cultured in M1 modified medium showed a considerable growth capacity. The packed cell volume was doubled in about 15 days of culture at the exponential phase. the results obtained may be used to design further experiments with the aim of improving somatic embryogenesis.
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5044
    Keywords: embryogenic calluses ; immature embryos ; maize embryogenesis ; pollen-embryos
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Biology
    Notes: Abstract A comparative study of polyamine (putrescine, spermidine and spermine) levels was conducted with maize calli originating from a) immature embryos and b) pollen embryos capable of plant regeneration. The differences observed in the studied parameters of the two kinds of calluses are related to their cellular origin and to their regeneration capacity. Moreover, only the calluses proceeding from immature embryos differentiated into preembryogenic structures, which eventually developed into plants. Although total polyamine levels in pollenderived calluses were significantly higher than those from immature embryos, spermidine and spermine were the predominant polyamines in both culture types. Furthermore, polyamine fractions of these calluses also showed differences. All these phenomena may be related with the differences observed in the callus embryogenic response. These findings may be useful in understanding the implication of polyaminesin embryogenetic processes.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5087
    Keywords: microsporogenesis ; androgenesis ; polyamines ; maize pollen
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Changes in polyamine content during in vivo maturation and in vitro culture of maize (Zea mays L.) pollen were studied. The endogenous content of free, conjugated and bound polyamines was analyzed during 30 days of pollen evolution, in both developmental pathways (microsporogenesis and androgenesis). The induction of androgenesis from cold-pretreated uninucleate pollen results, in most of cases, in a lower total polyamine content than that of the in vivo uninucleate pollen. These differences indicate that polyamine metabolism is altered during the induction of androgenesis, and this could be a consequence of increased polyamine assimilation. In general, pollen stages that involve cell division (tetrades, pre-anthesis pollen and four-day cultured pollen) are characterized by a predominance of free Spd. The increase of Spd and Spm in 15-day cultured pollen, when the first embryoids are formed, outline the possible implication of these polyamines in embryogenetic processes. Furthermore, these findings may contribute to the improvement of maize androgenesis yield, especially in recalcitrant genotypes, by the exogenous application of polyamines or polyamine-inhibitors to the culture medium.
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