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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2014-04-22
    Description: Changes in the hydrological regime of the saline closed basin Lake Van, a large, deep lake in eastern Turkey, resulted in a lake level increase by about 2 m between 1988 and 1995, followed by a 1.5 m decrease until 2003 and a relatively constant lake level thereafter. Based on measurements of transient tracers (sulfur hexafluoride, CFC-12, 3H, 3He, 4He, Ne), dissolved oxygen, light transmission, conductivity-temperature-depth profiles, and thermistor data, we investigate the implications associated with lake level fluctuations for deep-water renewal and oxygenation. Our data suggest that deep-water renewal was significantly reduced in Lake Van between 1990 and 2005. This change in mixing conditions resulted in the formation of a more than 100 m thick anoxic deep-water body below 325 m depth. Apparently, the freshwater inflows responsible for the lake level rise between 1988 and 1995 decreased the salinity of the surface water sufficiently that the generation of density plumes during winter cooling was substantially reduced compared to that in the years before the lake level rise. Significant renewal and oxygenation of the deep water did not occur until at least 2005, although by 2003 the lake level was back to almost the same level as in 1988. This study suggests that short-term changes in the hydrological regime, resulting in lake level changes of a couple of meters, can lead to significant and long-lasting changes in deep-water renewal and oxic conditions in deep saline lakes.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 2
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    Elsevier
    In:  Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, 75 (10). pp. 2848-2864.
    Publication Date: 2014-04-22
    Description: In this study, the largest ever carried out to measure noble gases in the pore water of unconsolidated sediments in lakes, the emission of terrigenic He through the sediment column of Lake Van was successfully mapped on the local scale. The main input of He to the water body occurs at the borders of a deep basin within the lake, which is probably the remains of a collapsed caldera. The 3He/4He3He/4He ratio identifies the He injected into the sedimentary column of Lake Van as a mixture of He released from a mantle source and radiogenic He of crustal origin (3He/4He∼2.6-4.1×10-6)(3He/4He∼2.6-4.1×10-6). During passage through the pore space, terrigenic He seems to be further enriched in radiogenic He that is most likely produced in the sediment column. In fact, two distinct trends in isotopic composition can be distinguished in the He injected from the lake basement into the sediments. One of these characterizes samples from the shallow water, the other characterizes samples from the deep basin. However, both of these trends are related to the same source of terrigenic He. The He fluxes determined seem to be characteristic of each sampling location and might be considered as a proxy for the fluid permeability of the deep sediment column. These new findings provide insight into the process of fluid transport within the sediments and into the process of formation of the lake basin. Moreover, the isotopic signature of the He that emanates into the water column of Lake Van is strongly affected by the mixing conditions prevailing in the overlying water body. This fact misled previous studies to interpret the terrigenic He in Lake Van as being solely of mantle origin (3He/4He∼10-5)(3He/4He∼10-5).
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2014-04-22
    Description: Recently developed analytical techniques to determine the abundances of noble gases in sediment pore water allow noble-gas concentrations and isotope ratios to be measured easily and routinely in lacustrine sediments. We applied these techniques for the first time to ocean sediments to investigate an active cold methane seepage system located in the South Pacific off the coast of the North Island of New Zealand using 3He/4He ratios determined in the sediment pore water. The results show that more 3He-rich fluids are released in the vicinity of the Pacific–Australian subduction zone than at the forearc stations located closer to the New Zealand coast. However, the He isotope signature in the sediment column indicates that only a minor part of the He emanating from deeper strata originates from a depleted mantle source. Hence, most He in the pore water is produced locally by the radioactive decay of U and Th in the sediment minerals or in the underlying crustal rocks. Such an occurrence of isotopically heavy crustal He also suggests that the source of the largest fraction of methane is a near-surface geochemical reservoir. This finding is in line with a previous δ13C study in the water column which concluded that the emanating methane is most likely of biological origin and is formed in the upper few meters of the sediment column. Moreover, the prevalence of isotopically heavy He agrees well with the outcome of other previous studies on island arc systems which indicate that the forearc regions are characterized by crustal He emission, whereas the volcanic arc region is characterized by the presence of mantle He associated with rising magma.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2017-08-03
    Description: © The Author(s), 2014. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License. The definitive version was published in Quaternary Science Reviews 104 (2014): 53-62, doi:10.1016/j.quascirev.2014.07.009.
    Description: Fossil long-chain alkenones have been used for several decades to reconstruct past ocean surface water temperatures and gained recent interest as a paleotemperature proxy for continental lake settings. However, factors besides temperature can affect alkenone distributions in haptophyte algae, and alkenone compositions can differ between haptophyte species. Alkenone-biosynthesizing haptophyte algae are genetically much more diverse in lakes than in the marine realm, and species-level variations in alkenone compositions could have implications for alkenone paleothermometry. Here, we performed a paired analysis of alkenone distributions and haptophyte species compositions using ancient DNA in up to 270 ka-old sediments of Lake Van in Turkey to reveal a possible species-effect on fossil alkenone distributions and paleotemperature estimates. The same predominant haptophyte in Lake Van today prevailed also since the last ∼100 ka. However, a calibration of alkenone paleotemperature especially in the oldest analyzed intervals is complicated due to a more complex haptophyte species composition predominated by a haptophyte (LVHap_6), which is phylogenetically different from sequences recovered from currently existing lakes including Lake Van and from haptophyte species existing in culture. The predominance of LVHap_6 coincided with the presence of alkenone MeC38:3 and relatively high MeC37:3/4 (2.4) and MeC38:4/5 ratios (3.0). Uk37 index values in the sediment core over the last 270 ka reflect relative changes in past temperature and are additionally linked to haptophyte species composition. A sustained period of high salinity, as indicated by pore-water salinity measurements, could potentially have triggered the succession of haptophytes as sources of alkenones in Lake Van.
    Description: The PALEOVAN drilling campaign was financially supported by the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP), the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF grants 200020_143340, 20FI21_124972 and 200021_124981) and the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey (Tübitak).
    Keywords: Alkenone paleothermometry ; Haptophyte species ; Paleoproxy ; Biomarker ; Paleolimnology ; Lake Van
    Repository Name: Woods Hole Open Access Server
    Type: Article
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2014-03-04
    Description: International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the Ahlat Ridge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.
    Keywords: ddc:550
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 6
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    In:  4th Mini Conference on Noble Gases in the Hydrosphere and in Natural Gas Reservoirs ; Year: 2007 ; Pages: 50-51
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Keywords: ddc:550
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2014-03-04
    Description: International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (ICDP) drilled a complete succession of the lacustrine sediment sequence deposited during the last ~500,000 years in Lake Van, Eastern Anatolia (Turkey). Based on a detailed seismic site survey, two sites at a water depth of up to 360 m were drilled in summer 2010, and cores were retrieved from sub-lake-floor depths of 140 m (Northern Basin) and 220 m (Ahlat Ridge). To obtain a complete sedimentary section, the two sites were multiple-cored in order to investigate the paleoclimate history of a sensitive semi-arid region between the Black, Caspian, and Mediterranean seas. Further scientific goals of the PALEOVAN project are the reconstruction of earthquake activity, as well as the temporal, spatial, and compositional evolution of volcanism as reflected in the deposition of tephra layers. The sediments host organic matter from different sources and hence composition, which will be unravelled using biomarkers. Pathways for migration of continental and mantle-derived noble gases will be analyzed in pore waters. Preliminary 40Ar/39Ar single crystal dating of tephra layers and pollen analyses suggest that the Ahlat Ridge record encompasses more than half a million years of paleoclimate and volcanic/geodynamic history, providing the longest continental record in the entire Near East to date.
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2015-08-12
    Type: http://purl.org/escidoc/metadata/ves/publication-types/article
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  • 9
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    In:  4th Mini Conference on Noble Gases in the Hydrosphere and in Natural Gas Reservoirs ; Year: 2007 ; Pages: 50-51
    Publication Date: 2017-09-21
    Language: English
    Type: http://purl.org/eprint/type/ConferencePaper
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2020-01-02
    Description: Highlights: • Clay dehydration water expelled from buried sediments drives mud volcanism. • Rise of fluids mediated by crustal-scale strike-slip faults cross-cutting wedge. • On active accretionary wedge, petroleum accumulations were dismantled in Neogene. • 4He enrichment and δ13C-CH4 ~−50‰ in fluids reflect an open hydrocarbon system. • Petroleum pools remain on shallow margin. Microbial gas vented out of active wedge. Abstract: A geochemical study of the composition of hydrocarbon gases and helium isotopes (3He/4He) in fluids from Mud Volcanoes (MVs) located on and out of the active accretionary wedge of the Gulf of Cadiz (GoC) provides information on fluid sources and migrations in deeply buried sediments. The GoC is a tectonically active segment of the Africa-Iberia plate boundary occluded beneath the thick sediments of an accretionary wedge dissected by crustal-scale strike-slip faults. Initially built during the Miocene Gibraltar Arc subduction, the wedge has since developed toward the W-NW in an oblique convergent setting. Interstitial water expelled from clays undergoing diagenesis in buried sediments drives mud volcanism on the wedge, with MVs located along strike-slip faults mediating fluid ascent. The large excess of radiogenic helium (4He) in all GoC fluids agrees with a clay mineral dehydration source of water. Hydrocarbon gases from all deepwater MVs bear methane having similar stable carbon isotope compositions of ~−50‰VPDB whether fluids are highly enriched in methane relative to heavier homologues (C2+) or not (Methane / (Ethane + Propane) ~10 to 10,000). We suggest that methane with −50‰VPDB was largely diffused out of early generating source rocks, and became dissolved in the water expelled by the buried sediments. Consistently, low 3He/4He ratios suggest an open hydrocarbon system: Petroleum accumulations and 3He dissolved in the original sedimentary pore water have mostly escaped into the water column during the major Late Neogene compressional events. At present, some MVs vent CH4-rich fluids from dewatering sediments, while other structures located on active thrusts additionally vent C2+-rich gases generated by active Cretaceous source intervals. By contrast, evaporitic seals preserved petroleum accumulations on the shallow Moroccan Margin, while the westernmost MVs located out of the accretionary wedge vent microbial gas.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
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