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  • 1
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    ISSN: 0168-583X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract. Interannual and interdecadal variabilities in the Pacific are investigated with a coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM developed at MRI, Japan. The model is run for 70 years with flux adjustments. The model shows interannual variability in the tropical Pacific which has several typical characteristics shared with the observed ENSO. A basin-scale feature of the principal SST variation for the ENSO time scale shows negative correlation in the central North Pacific with the tropical SST, similar to that of the observed one. Associated variation of the model atmosphere indicates an intensification of the Aleutian Low and a PNA-like teleconnection pattern as a response to the tropical warm SST anomaly. The ENSO time scale variability in the midlatitude ocean consists of the westward propagation of the subsurface temperature signal and the temperature variation within the shallow mixed layer forced by the anomalous atmospheric heat fluxes. For the interdecadal time scale, variation of the SST is simulated realistically with a geographical pattern similar to that for the ENSO time scale, but it has a larger relative amplitude in the northern Pacific. For the atmosphere, spatial structure of the variation in the interdecadal time scale is also similar to that in the ENSO time scale, but has smaller amplitude in the northern Pacific. Long oceanic spin-up time (〉∼10 y) in the mid-high latitude, however, makes oceanic response in the interdecadal time scale larger than that in the ENSO time scale. The lagged-regression analysis for the ocean temperature variation relative to the wind stress variation indicates that interdecadal variation of the ocean subsurface at the mid-high latitudes is considered as enhanced ocean gyre spin-up process in response to the atmospheric circulation change at the mid-high latitudes, remotely forced by the interdecadal variation of the tropical SST.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2016-09-08
    Description: An intercomparison is undertaken of the tropical behavior of 17 coupled ocean-atmosphere models in which at least one component may be termed a general circulation model (GCM). The aim is to provide a taxonomy—a description and rough classification—of behavior across the ensemble of models, focusing on interannual variability. The temporal behavior of the sea surface temperature (SST) field along the equator is presented for each model, SST being chosen as the primary variable for intercomparison due to its crucial role in mediating the coupling and because it is a sensitive indicator of climate drift. A wide variety of possible types of behavior are noted among the models. Models with substantial interannual tropical variability may be roughly classified into cases with propagating SST anomalies and cases in which the SST anomalies develop in place. A number of the models also exhibit significant drift with respect to SST climatology. However, there is not a clear relationship between climate drift and the presence or absence of interannual oscillations. In several cases, the mode of climate drift within the tropical Pacific appears to involve coupled feedback mechanisms similar to those responsible for El Niño variability. Implications for coupled-model development and for climate prediction on seasonal to interannual time scales are discussed. Overall, the results indicate considerable sensitivity of the tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere system and suggest that the simulation of the warm-pool/cold-tongue configuration in the equatorial Pacific represents a challenging test for climate model parameterizations.
    Type: Article , PeerReviewed
    Format: text
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  • 4
    ISSN: 1432-0894
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
    Notes: Abstract An intercomparison is undertaken of the tropical behavior of 17 coupled ocean-atmosphere models in which at least one component may be termed a general circulation model (GCM). The aim is to provide a taxonomy—a description and rough classification—of behavior across the ensemble of models, focusing on interannual variability. The temporal behavior of the sea surface temperature (SST) field along the equator is presented for each model, SST being chosen as the primary variable for intercomparison due to its crucial role in mediating the coupling and because it is a sensitive indicator of climate drift. A wide variety of possible types of behavior are noted among the models. Models with substantial interannual tropical variability may be roughly classified into cases with propagating SST anomalies and cases in which the SST anomalies develop in place. A number of the models also exhibit significant drift with respect to SST climatology. However, there is not a clear relationship between climate drift and the presence or absence of interannual oscillations. In several cases, the mode of climate drift within the tropical Pacific appears to involve coupled feedback mechanisms similar to those responsible for El Niño variability. Implications for coupled-model development and for climate prediction on seasonal to interannual time scales are discussed. Overall, the results indicate considerable sensitivity of the tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere system and suggest that the simulation of the warm-pool/cold-tongue configuration in the equatorial Pacific represents a challenging test for climate model parameterizations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-18
    Description: A parameterization of subgridscale mixing based on quasi-geostrophic turbulence theory is presented. In this parameterization, not only the horizontal diffusion coefficients for momentum and heat, but also the vertical diffusion coefficients for momentum and heat are uniquely determined. A form of the mixing is derived which simulates the subgridscale mixing process in the inertial subrange of enstrophy cascade.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Papers in Meteorology and Geophysics; 31; Feb. 198
    Format: text
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  • 6
    ISSN: 0006-291X
    Source: Elsevier Journal Backfiles on ScienceDirect 1907 - 2002
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Zoologische Mededelingen (0024-0672) vol.48 (1974) nr.9 p.75
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: Eleven samples of pelagic tunicates were found in the material collected during the Snellius Expedition 1929-30. In these, seven species, viz., two pyrosomas and five salpas, are included. In addition, a few old specimens of another species of Pyrosoma were found in the collection of the Leiden Museum. Thus, the following eight species are recorded in the present short paper. 1. Pyrosoma spinosum (Herdman) 2. Pyrosoma verticillatum cylindricum Metcalf & Hopkins 3. Pyrosoma atlanticum atlanticum (Peron) 4. Ritteriella picteti (Apstein) 5. Salpa fusiformis Cuvier 6. ? Salpa cylindrica Cuvier 7. Thetys vagina (Tilesius) 8. Pegea confoederata (Forskal) Most of the specimens are preserved in formalin and these, especially the salpas, are all in a poor condition. In the salpas, most of the soft tissues, inclusive of muscle bands, has been lost as if the specimens had come from the stomach contents of fishes. Fortunately, however, the size, approximate outline, and situation of the nucleus could be determined, as well as those of the stolon. In some specimens, some traces of muscle bands were visible. All these features, together with test characters and the situation of the dorsal ganglion deducible from the anterior base of the gill, enabled me to identify most of them definitely. I want to express my cordial thanks to Dr. W. Vervoort of the Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie at Leiden for his generous help during my
    Keywords: 42.8
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 8
    facet.materialart.
    Unknown
    In:  Zoologische Mededelingen (0024-0672) vol.45 (1971) nr.10 p.119
    Publication Date: 2013-03-01
    Description: I was strongly impressed by the striking resemblance between the ascidian genera Ciallusia Van Name, 1918 and Pterygascidia Sluiter, 1904 when in 1957 I examined some specimens of Ciallusia longa Van Name, 1918, collected from Philippine waters and deposited at the United States National Museum (Tokioka, 1967: 136). C. longa is closely related with Pterygascidia mirabilis Sluiter, 1904, collected from off Timor by the Siboga Expedition, in general appearance of the pedunculate body, situation of the branchial and atrial apertures, structure of the branchial siphon, arrangement of body muscles divided into parts, and in the essential structure of the branchial sac, alimentary canal and gonads. The former, however, seemed to differ distinctly from the latter in the absence of a pair of remarkable fin-like semicircular extensions of the dorsal lobes of the atrial aperture and in having a series of dorsal languets instead of the dorsal lamina of a narrow, plainly edged membrane. Especially the last difference seemed very significant from a systematic point of view in Ascidiacea, because the plain membranous dorsal lamina is generally considered to be exceptional in the order Phlebobranchia. Recently, I had the opportunity to examine twenty specimens of C. longa collected by the Snellius Expedition on 5 September 1929 at Station 60*, 6°58.0'N 121°52.5'E, in the Basilan Strait between the islands of Basilan and Mindanao, 72-80 m deep. To my surprise, the pair of wing-like elliptical extensions of the dorsal lobes of the atrial aperture which are supposed to be unique to P. mirabilis were found very clearly on 19 of the 20 specimens (fig. 1 A, B). I thought that I found a structure of uncertain meaning on the dorsal side of the body just posterior to the atrial siphon in the specimens of
    Keywords: 42.71
    Repository Name: National Museum of Natural History, Netherlands
    Type: Article / Letter to the editor
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 1996-09-02
    Description: Interannual and interdecadal variabilities in the Pacific are investigated with a coupled atmosphere-ocean GCM developed at MRI, Japan. The model is run for 70 years with flux adjustments. The model shows interannual variability in the tropical Pacific which has several typical characteristics shared with the observed ENSO. A basin-scale feature of the principal SST variation for the ENSO time scale shows negative correlation in the central North Pacific with the tropical SST, similar to that of the observed one. Associated variation of the model atmosphere indicates an intensification of the Aleutian Low and a PNA-like teleconnection pattern as a response to the tropical warm SST anomaly. The ENSO time scale variability in the midlatitude ocean consists of the westward propagation of the subsurface temperature signal and the temperature variation within the shallow mixed layer forced by the anomalous atmospheric heat fluxes. For the interdecadal time scale, variation of the SST is simulated realistically with a geographical pattern similar to that for the ENSO time scale, but it has a larger relative amplitude in the northern Pacific. For the atmosphere, spatial structure of the variation in the interdecadal time scale is also similar to that in the ENSO time scale, but has smaller amplitude in the northern Pacific. Long oceanic spin-up time (〉∼10 y) in the mid-high latitude, however, makes oceanic response in the interdecadal time scale larger than that in the ENSO time scale. The lagged-regression analysis for the ocean temperature variation relative to the wind stress variation indicates that interdecadal variation of the ocean subsurface at the mid-high latitudes is considered as enhanced ocean gyre spin-up process in response to the atmospheric circulation change at the mid-high latitudes, remotely forced by the interdecadal variation of the tropical SST. ©1996 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg
    Print ISSN: 0930-7575
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 1992-03-01
    Description: An intercomparison is undertaken of the tropical behavior of 17 coupled ocean-atmosphere models in which at least one component may be termed a general circulation model (GCM). The aim is to provide a taxonomy —a description and rough classification—of behavior across the ensemble of models, focusing on interannual variability. The temporal behavior of the sea surface temperature (SST) field along the equator is presented for each model, SST being chosen as the primary variable for intercomparison due to its crucial role in mediating the coupling and because it is a sensitive indicator of climate drift. A wide variety of possible types of behavior are noted among the models. Models with substantial interannual tropical variability may be roughly classified into cases with propagating SST anomalies and cases in which the SST anomalies develop in place. A number of the models also exhibit significant drift with respect to SST climatology. However, there is not a clear relationship between climate drift and the presence or absence of interannual oscillations. In several cases, the mode of climate drift within the tropical Pacific appears to involve coupled feedback mechanisms similar to those responsible for El Niño variability. Implications for coupled-model development and for climate prediction on seasonal to interannual time scales are discussed. Overall, the results indicate considerable sensitivity of the tropical coupled ocean-atmosphere system and suggest that the simulation of the warm-pool/cold-tongue configuration in the equatorial Pacific represents a challenging test for climate model parameterizations. ©1992 Springer-Verlag
    Print ISSN: 0930-7575
    Electronic ISSN: 1432-0894
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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