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  • 1
    Call number: ILP/M 10.0206
    In: Tectonophysics
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: VI, 238 S. : z.T. farb. Ill., graph. Darst.
    Series Statement: Tectonophysics Vol. 482, Iss. 1-4 : Special issue
    Language: English
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: Shale dykes, diapirs and mud volcanoes are common in the onshore and offshore regions of Brunei Darussalam. Outcrop examples show that shale has intruded along both faults and tensile fractures. Conventional models of overpressure-induced brittle failure assume that pore pressure and total stresses are independent of one another. However, data worldwide and from Brunei show that changes in pore pressure are coupled with changes in total minimum horizontal stress. The pore pressure/stress-coupling ratio ({Delta}{sigma}h/{Delta}Pp) describes the rate of change of minimum horizontal stress magnitude with changing pore pressure. Minimum horizontal stress measurements for a major offshore field where undepleted pore pressures range from normal to highly overpressured show a pore pressure/stress-coupling ratio of 0.59. As a consequence of pore pressure/stress coupling, rocks can sustain a greater increase in pore pressure prior to failure than predicted by the prevailing values of pore pressure and stress. Pore pressure/stress-coupling may favour the formation of tensile fractures with increasing pore pressure rather than reactivation of pre-existing faults. Anthropogenically-induced tensile fracturing in offshore Brunei supports this hypothesis.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2012-08-09
    Description: Delta–deepwater fold–thrust belts are linked systems of extension and compression. Margin-parallel maximum horizontal stresses (extension) on the delta top are generated by gravitational collapse of accumulating sediment, and drive downdip margin-normal maximum horizontal stresses (compression) in the deepwater fold–thrust belt (or delta toe). This maximum horizontal stress rotation has been observed in a number of delta systems. Maximum horizontal stress orientations, determined from 32 petroleum wells in the Gulf of Mexico, are broadly margin-parallel on the delta top with a mean orientation of 060 and a standard deviation of 49°. However, several orientations show up to 60° deflection from the regional margin-parallel orientation. Three-dimensional (3D) seismic data from the Gulf of Mexico delta top demonstrate the presence of salt diapirs piercing the overlying deltaic sediments. These salt diapirs are adjacent to wells (within 500 m) that demonstrate deflected stress orientations. The maximum horizontal stresses are deflected to become parallel to the interface between the salt and sediment. Two cases are presented that account for the alignment of maximum horizontal stresses parallel to this interface: (1) the contrast between geomechanical properties of the deltaic sediments and adjacent salt diapirs; and (2) gravitational collapse of deltaic sediments down the flanks of salt diapirs.
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  • 4
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 367: 155-170.
    Publication Date: 2012-08-09
    Description: This study examines present-day stress orientations from borehole breakout and drilling-induced fractures in 57 boreholes in the Nile Delta. A total of 588 breakouts and 68 drilling-induced fractures from 50 wells reveal sharply contrasting present-day maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) orientations across the Nile Delta. A typical deltaic margin-parallel SHmax exists in parts of the Nile Delta that are below or absent from evaporites (NNE–SSW in the west, east–west in the central Nile, ESE–WNW in the east). However, a largely margin-normal (NNE–SSW) SHmax is observed in sequences underlain by evaporites in the eastern Nile Delta. The margin-normal supra-salt SHmax orientations are often subperpendicular to the strike of nearby active extensional faults, rather than being parallel to the faults as predicted by Andersonian criteria. The high angle between SHmax and strike of these extensional faults represents a new type of non-Andersonian faulting that is even less-suitably oriented for shear failure than previously described anomalous faulting such as low-angle normal faults and highly oblique strike-slip faults (e.g. San Andreas). While the mechanics of these non-Andersonian faults remains uncertain, it is suggested that the margin-normal supra-salt orientation generated by basal forces imparted upon rafted blocks sliding down seawards-dipping evaporites.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2019-10-25
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The World Stress Map (WSM) is the global repository for contemporary tectonic stress data from the Earth's crust. Its uniformity and quality is guaranteed through quality ranking of the data according to international standards and a standardized regime assignment. The WSM merges data which otherwise would be fragmented in separate, often inaccessible archives. It provides the long-term preservation of tectonic stress data from physical loss of data carriers or organizational problems of data storage. The data are provided as Excel table (xlsx) and tab-delimited text.
    Keywords: World Stress Map ; tectonics ; geophysics ; crustal stress ; in situ stress ; tectonic stress ; crustal stress pattern ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA MANAGEMENT/DATA HANDLING 〉 DATA SEARCH AND RETRIEVAL ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 STRESS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 LITHOSPHERIC PLATE MOTION 〉 PLATE MOTION DIRECTION
    Type: Dataset
    Format: 1 Files
    Format: application/octet-stream
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2019-10-25
    Description: Abstract
    Description: The Stress Map of the Mediterranean and Central Europe 2016 displays 5011 A-C quality stress data records of the upper 40 km of the Earth’s crust from the WSM database release 2016 (Heidbach et al, 2016, http://doi.org/10.5880/WSM.2016.001). Focal mechanism solutions determined as being potentially unreliable (labelled as Possible Plate Boundary Events in the database) are not displayed. Further detailed information on the WSM quality ranking scheme, guidelines for the various stress indicators, and software for stress map generation and the stress pattern analysis is available at www.world-stress-map.org.
    Description: Other
    Description: The World Stress Map (WSM) is a global compilation of information on the crustal present-day stress field. It is a collaborative project between academia and industry that aims to characterize the stress pattern and to understand the stress sources. It commenced in 1986 as a project of the International Lithosphere Program under the leadership of Mary-Lou Zoback. From 1995-2008 it was a project of the Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities headed first by Karl Fuchs and then by Friedemann Wenzel. Since 2009 the WSM is maintained at the GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences and since 2012 the WSM is a member of the ICSU World Data System. All stress information is analysed and compiled in a standardized format and quality-ranked for reliability and comparability on a global scale.
    Keywords: crustal stress ; in situ stress ; tectonic stress ; crustal stress pattern ; tectonics ; geophysics ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 STRESS ; EARTH SCIENCE 〉 SOLID EARTH 〉 TECTONICS 〉 PLATE TECTONICS 〉 LITHOSPHERIC PLATE MOTION 〉 PLATE MOTION DIRECTION ; EARTH SCIENCE SERVICES 〉 DATA MANAGEMENT/DATA HANDLING 〉 DATA SEARCH AND RETRIEVAL
    Type: Dataset
    Format: 13765676 Bytes
    Format: 1 Files
    Format: application/pdf
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2019-10-28
    Description: The World Stress Map (WSM) is the global repository for contemporary tectonic stress data from the Earth's crust. Its uniformity and quality is guaranteed through quality ranking of the data according to international standards and a standardized regime assignment. The WSM merges data which otherwise would be fragmented in separate, often inaccessible archives. It provides the long-term preservation of tectonic stress data from physical loss of data carriers or organizational problems of data storage.
    Description: Abstract
    Type: Image
    Format: 1 Datasets
    Format: text/html
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-05-01
    Description: Evaporitic horizons are routinely interpreted to act as mechanical detachment sequences and thus significantly influence the structural evolution of sedimentary basins and fold-thrust belts. However, over 30 years of global in situ stress analysis have provided only poor evidence to support this widespread assumption. This study examines present-day stress orientations inferred from borehole breakout and drilling-induced fractures in 44 boreholes in the offshore Nile Delta. A total of 446 breakouts and 19 drilling-induced fractures from 37 wells reveal sharply contrasting present-day maximum horizontal stress (SHmax) orientations in sequences above and below the extensive Messinian evaporites of the eastern Nile Delta. A typical deltaic margin-parallel SHmax (E-W in the central and ESE-WNW in the eastern Nile Delta) is observed in parts of the Nile Delta that are below or do not contain evaporites. However, a scattered but largely margin-normal (NNE-SSW) SHmax is observed in sequences underlain by evaporites. The [~]90{degrees} variation in present-day SHmax orientation above and below the Messinian salts provides the first convincing in situ evidence that evaporite sequences can act as major mechanical detachment horizons. In addition, the margin-normal SHmax orientation is subperpendicular to the strike of nearby active extensional faults, indicating the existence of non-Andersonian faulting in the suprasalt region. Furthermore, the evidence that the Messinian evaporites act as an effective mechanical detachment suggests that suprasalt faulting in the eastern Nile Delta is not the result of basement-related deformation and thus raises doubts about the often postulated extension of the Suez fault zone into the eastern Mediterranean.
    Print ISSN: 0016-7606
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-07-01
    Description: Structural mapping, nearest neighbour and two-point azimuth statistical analysis of mud volcano vent distributions from nine examples in Azerbaijan and the Lusi mud volcano in east Java are described. Distributions are non-random, forming alignments subparallel to faults within anticlines, ring faults, conjugate faults and detachment faults; this finding confirms a spatial relationship and supports a model for subsurface flow along these features as well as showing fractionation at depth. As fracture and fault orientations are related to structures such as anticlines and the in situ stress state they are therefore predictable. We use vent distributions in Azerbaijan, where the structural geology is well constrained, to propose what controls the distribution of 169 vents at the Lusi mud volcano. This mud volcano system shows evidence for initial eruptions along a NE–SW trend, parallel to the Watukosek fault, changing to eruptions that follow east–west trends, subparallel to regional fold axes. Our analysis indicates that regions east and west of the Lusi mud volcano are more likely to be affected by new vents than those to the north and south, owing to probable onset of elongate caldera collapse within a 10 km diameter of the central vent.
    Print ISSN: 0016-7649
    Topics: Geosciences
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2009-01-01
    Description: The present-day state of stress in Tertiary deltas is poorly understood but vital for a range of applications such as wellbore stability and fracture stimulation. The Tertiary Baram Delta province, Brunei, exhibits a range of contemporary stress values that reflect the competing influence of the northwest Borneo active margin (situated underneath the basin) and local stresses generated within the delta. Vertical stress (σv) gradients at 1500-m (4921-ft) depth range from 18.3 MPa/km (0.81 psi/ft) at the shelf edge to 24.3 MPa/km (1.07 psi/ft) in the hinterland, indicating a range in the shallow bulk density across the delta of 2.07–2.48 g/cm3. The maximum horizontal stress (σHmax) orientation rotates from margin parallel (northeast–southwest; deltaic) in the outer shelf to margin normal (northwest–southeast; basement associated) in the inner shelf. Minimum horizontal stress (σhmin) gradients in normally pressured sequences range from 13.8 to 17.0 MPa/km (0.61–0.75 psi/ft) with higher gradients observed in older parts of the basin. The variation in contemporary stress across the basin reveals a delta system that is inverting and self-cannibalizing as the delta system rapidly progrades across the margin. The present-day stress in the delta system has implications for a range of exploration and production issues affecting Brunei. Underbalanced wells are more stable if deviated toward the σhmin direction, whereas fracture stimulation in mature fields and tight reservoirs can be more easily conducted in wells deviated toward σHmax. Finally, faults near the shelf edge are optimally oriented for reactivation, and hence exploration targets in this region are at a high risk of fault seal breach. Mark Tingay is currently an Australian postdoctoral fellow at Curtin University, where he works on stress, overpressure, and tectonic evolution of Southeast Asia. He received his Ph.D. in 2003 from the Australian School of Petroleum. He then became the petroleum geomechanics researcher at the World Stress Map Project where he worked on projects in 11 countries, including the United States, Egypt, Azerbaijan, and Thailand. Richard Hillis is the head of the Australian School of Petroleum and State of South Australia professor of petroleum geology at the University of Adelaide. He received a B.S. degree (hons) from Imperial College and a Ph.D. from the University of Edinburgh. He is a director of image log and a geomechanics consultant of JRS Petroleum Research and of the geothermal exploration company Petratherm. Chris Morley received his Ph.D. in 1983 before working for Amoco and Elf Aquitaine and as a professor at the University of Brunei Darussalam. He is currently working for PTT Exploration and Production as a senior geophysicist. He has worked as an exploration geologist and as a structural geologist in east Africa, Morocco, the Norwegian Caledonides, the Carpathians, northwest Borneo, and Thailand. Rosalind King is a postdoctoral researcher at the Australian School of Petroleum where she studies the present-day stress and neotectonics of northwest Borneo as well as delta and deep-water fold and thrust belt systems worldwide. She completed her Ph.D. on the structural evolution of the Cape fold belt and southwest Karoo Basin, South Africa. Richard Swarbrick commenced his career in 1979 when he joined Mobil with assignments in the United Kingdom and the United States. He joined Durham University in 1989 and was a principal investigator for a multidisciplinary research group funded by 17 oil and gas companies. Over that period, he developed training courses in subsurface pressures and founded the company GeoPressure Technology. He is an honorary professor at Durham University and has been an AAPG member since 1982. Abdul Razak Damit is currently the chief geologist for the National Oil Company of Brunei (PetroleumBRUNEI). He obtained his Ph.D. at Aberdeen University and has 20 years of industry experience, primarily at Shell where he worked on both reservoir and regional evaluation. His main interests are in the geology of northwest Borneo and in raising public awareness of the natural and social history of Brunei.
    Print ISSN: 0149-1423
    Electronic ISSN: 1943-2674
    Topics: Geosciences
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