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  • 1
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: For more than a decade, several teams have assessed designs for a long-duration free-space human habitat beyond low-Earth orbit (LEO), building upon years of hard-won experience with the International Space Station (ISS). These systems would enable multiple achievements for science and human space flight. Most were intended to be deployed using available or near-future capabilities within about a decade after funding begins and serve as the first major human "stepping stone" beyond LEO. Last year, Thronson and Talay summarized work up to that time on expandable or inflatable concepts for deployment at an Earth-Moon (E-M) L1 or L2 location. Here we summarize our team's more recent work both on a long-duration human habitat that could be deployed beyond LEO within a decade and on the priority goals that such a habitat might accomplish. Particulars of this and other concepts for human operations in cis-lunar space are posted on the web and will be presented at professional conferences, and detailed in future publications by our group.
    Keywords: Spacecraft Design, Testing and Performance
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  • 2
    Publication Date: 2018-06-06
    Description: With NASA's commitment to the International Space Station (ISS) now all but certain for at least through the coming decade, serious consideration may be given to extended US in-space operations in the 2020s, when presumably the ISS will exceed its sell by date. Indeed, both ESA and Roscosmos, in addition to their unambiguous current commitment to ISS, have published early concept studies for extended post-ISS habitation (e.g., http://www.esa.int/esaHS/index.html, http://www.russianspaceweb.com/opsek.html and references therein). In the US, engineers and scientists have for a decade been working both within and outside NASA to assess one consistent candidate for long-term post-ISS habitation and operations, although interrupted by changing priorities for human space flight, Congressional direction, and constrained budgets. The evolving work of these groups is described here, which may have renewed relevance with the recent completion of a major review of the nation s human space flight program.
    Keywords: Lunar and Planetary Science and Exploration
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: NGC 3077 is the third largest system in the M81 swarm of galaxies, after the giant spiral M81 itself and dwarf oddity M82. We are interested in exploring the fate of molecular material in NGC 3077. For that reason we have mapped the distribution of J = 1 to 0 CO emission in the central approximately 1 arcmin (1 kpc) diameter region of the galaxy using the Owens Valley millimeter-array with an angular resolution of 6.'7 x 5.'7 (110 pc x 90 pc). The results are shown on the following page as a series of velocity channel maps with delta v = 13 km s(exp -1).
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA. Ames Research Center, The Evolution of Galaxies and Their Environment; p 189-190
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: Several arguments can be made to study the continuum emission from dust in galaxies at wavelengths between the cutoff of the Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) survey (about 100 microns) and the shortest wavelength that is commonly accessible from the ground (about 350 microns). Some theoretical work (see the summary by Cox and Mezger 1989) indicates that there are very cool (T sub d less than or equal to 25 K) components to the dust emission that emit primarily at wavelengths between 100 and 250 microns. In fact, a significant fraction of the total luminosity, representing a large fraction of the dust mass in some types of galaxies, is emitted at long far-infrared wavelengths. In such cases, the cool dust must play a major role in regulation of the energy balance of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) and in shielding the cores of neutral clouds.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: NASA, Ames Research Center, The Interstellar Medium in External Galaxies: Summaries of Contributed Papers; p 116-119
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2013-08-31
    Description: A search was conducted for J = 1 yields 0 CO emission from 22 galaxies, detecting half, as part of a survey to study star formation in small to medium size galaxies. Although substantial variation was found in the star formation efficiencies of the sample galaxies, there is no apparent systematic trend with galaxy size.
    Keywords: SPACE RADIATION
    Type: NASA, Washington Star Formation in Galaxies; p 267-270
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2016-03-09
    Description: The present conference on the interstellar medium in galaxies discusses the cool phase of the interstellar medium, molecular clouds in spiral galaxies, interstellar dust in galaxies, and the diffuse interstellar medium. Attention is given to cooling flows and X-ray emission in early-type galaxies, the interstellar medium in active galaxies, abundances in extragalactic H II regions, and thermal phases of the interstellar medium in galaxies. Topics considered include large-scale interstellar gasdynamics in disk galaxies, gas during mergers, magnetic fields in galaxies, and large-scale star formation in the interstellar medium. Also discussed are gaseous halos and disks of galaxies at large redshift, the star-gas cycle in galaxies, measuring atomic hydrogen masses using the 21-cm line, and mass determinations from far-infrared and from CO observations.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-19
    Description: Infrared emission-line images of the v = 1-0 S(1) transition of molecular hydrogen and Br-gamma recombination line of atomic hydrogen which cover the entire extent of NGC 6720, the Ring nebula. The maps presented here are the highest angular resolution images of these transitions yet produced for this object and have very low relative positional uncertainty. As a result, the spatial stratification of the ionized and shocked molecular zones within the nebula is clearly resolved. These data, and data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, are used to determine the H2, H I, and dust mass within the nebula. Energy sources for the dust heating, formation and destruction of the H2, and overall evolution of the nebula are also discussed.
    Keywords: ASTROPHYSICS
    Type: Astrophysical Journal, Part 1 (ISSN 0004-637X); 325; 604-609
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We present a lean-minded, fast-transfer mission strategy and architecture concept for a first human mission to Mars that deliberately utilizes a current-technology-favored approach by means of introducing and quantitatively dening two pivotal parameters: 1) an end-to-end Mars mission duration of approximately one year, and 2) a deep space habitat of approximately 4050 metric tons. These parameters are identified and introduced by a 2012 deep space habitat study conducted at the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) that focused on a subset of recognized high-engineering-risk factors that may otherwise inhibit or encumber remote space travel to destinations such as Mars or near-Earth asteroids (NEAs). Additional constraints in the study favoring current technology and a lean-minded (very short) surface stay on Mars are shown to offer such Mars mission opportunities in the 2030s, enabled by a combination of on-orbit staging, mission element pre-positioning, and unique round-trip trajectories identied by state-of-the-art astrodynamics algorithms.
    Keywords: Astrophysics
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN8715 , AIAA SPACE 2013 Conference and Exposition; 10-12 Sep. 2013; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: Are we alone? Answering this ageless question will be a major focus for astrophysics in coming decades. Our tools will include unprecedentedly large UV-Optical-IR space telescopes working with advanced coronagraphs and starshades. Yet, these facilities will not live up to their full potential without better detectors than we have today. To inform detector development, this paper provides an overview of visible and near-IR (VISIR; lambda = 0.4 1.8 micrometers) detector needs for the Advanced Technology Large Aperture Space Telescope (ATLAST), specifically for spectroscopic characterization of atmospheric biosignature gasses. We also provide a brief status update on some promising detector technologies for meeting these needs in the context of a passively cooled ATLAST.
    Keywords: Exobiology; Instrumentation and Photography
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN31628 , SPIE Optics + Photonics 2015; 9-13 Aug. 2015; San Diego, CA; United States
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2019-07-13
    Description: We describe how availability of new solar electric propulsion (SEP) technology can substantially increase the science capability of space astronomy missions working within the near-UV to far-infrared (UVOIR) spectrum by making dark sky orbits accessible for the first time. We present a proof of concept case study in which SEP is used to enable a 700 kg Explorer-class observatory payload to reach an orbit beyond where the zodiacal dust limits observatory sensitivity. The resulting scientific performance advantage relative to a Sun-Earth L2 point orbit is presented and discussed. We find that making SEP available to astrophysics Explorers can enable this small payload program to rival the science performance of much larger long development-time systems. We also present flight dynamics analysis which illustrates that this concept can be extended beyond Explorers to substantially improve the sensitivity performance of heavier (7000 kg) flagship-class astrophysics payloads such as the UVOIR successor to the James Webb Space Telescope by using high power SEP that is being developed for the Asteroid Redirect Robotics Mission.
    Keywords: Astronomy; Astrophysics; Spacecraft Propulsion and Power
    Type: GSFC-E-DAA-TN22978 , Advances in Space Research (ISSN 0273-1177); 55; 4; 1222-1233
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