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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Oxford [u.a.] : Pergamon
    Call number: AWI G2-98-0260
    Description / Table of Contents: Data Analysis Methods in Physical Oceanography provides a comprehensive and practical compilation of the essential information and analysis techniques required for the advanced processing and interpretation of digital spatiatemporal data in physical oceanography as well in other branches of the geophysical sciences. This book assumes a fundamental understanding of calculus and is directed primarily towards scientists and engineers in industry, government and universities, including graduate and advanced undergraduate students. Spanning five chapters and numerous appendices, the book provides a valuable compendium of the fundamental data processing tools required by the marine scientist. Many of these tools will be of use in other branches of the physical and natural sciences. The book begins with detailed discussion of the instruments used to collect oceanographic data and the limitation of the resulting data. Data presentation and display methods are reviewed in chapter two. The remaining three chapters supply detailed information on a broad range of statistical and deterministic data analysis methods ranging from established methods such as Analysis of Variance methods and Principal Component Analysis, to more recent data analysis techniques such as Wavelet Transforms and Fractals. Each technique is illustrated by a worked example and a large number of references are given for the reader who may want to dig deeper into the subject. No other book of this type exists that brings together in one volume information on the measurement systems, data editing, data reduction/processing and analysis and interpretational. This book brings all of this information into a single volume which can act as a text for the neophyte or a reference volume for the experienced scientist. The book is both a guide and an encyclopaedia to modern data processing methods in the geophysical sciences. Many nonoceanographers should find this volume a handy reference on their shelves.
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XVI, 634 S. : Ill., graph. Darst., Kt.
    Edition: 1st ed.
    ISBN: 0080314341
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Preface. - Acknowledgments. - Chapter 1 Data Acquisition and Recording. - 1.1 Introduction. - 1.2 Basic sampling requirements. - 1.2.1 Sampling interval. - 1.2.2 Sampling duration. - 1.2.3 Sampling accuracy. - 1.2.4 Burst sampling versus continuous sampling. - 1.2.5 Regularly versus irregularly sampled data. - 1.2.6 Independent realizations. - 1.3 Temperature. - 1.3.1 Mercury thermometers. - 1.3.2 The mechanical bathythermograph (MBT). - 1.3.3 Resistance thermometers (expendable bathythermograph: XBT). - 1.3.4 Salinity/conductivity-temperature-depth profilers. - 1.3.5 Dynamic response of temperature sensors 19 1.3.6 Response times of CTD systems. - 1.3.7 Temperature calibration of STD/CTD profilers. - 1.3.8 Sea surface temperature. - 1.3.9 The modern digital thermometer. - 1.3.10 Potential temperature and density. - 1.4 Salinity. - 1.4.1 Salinity and electrical conductivity. - 1.4.2 The practical salinity scale. - 1.4.3 Nonconductive methods. - 1.5 Depth or pressure. - 1.5.1 Hydrostatic pressure. - 1.5.2 Free-fall velocity. - 1.5.3 Echo sounding. - 1.5.4 Other depth sounding methods. - 1.6 Sea-level measurement. - 1.6.1 Tide and pressure gauges. - 1.6.2 Satellite altimetry. - 1.6.3 Inverted echo sounder (IES). - 1.6.4 Wave height and direction. - 1.7 Eulerian currents. - 1.7.1 Early current meter technology. - 1.7.2 Rotor-type current meters. - 1.7.3 Nonmechanical current meters. - 1.7.4 Profiling acoustic Doppler current meters (ADCM). - 1.7.5 Comparisons of current meters. - 1.7.6 Electromagnetic methods. - 1.7.7 Other methods of current measurement. - 1.7.8 Mooring logistics. - 1.7.9 Acoustic releases. - 1.8 Lagrangian current measurements. - 1.8.1 Drift cards and bottles. - 1.8.2 Modern drifters. - 1.8.3 Processing satellite-tracked drifter data. - 1.8.4 Drifter response. - 1.8.5 Other types of surface drifters. - 1.8.6 Subsurface floats. - 1.8.7 Surface displacements in satellite imagery. - 1.9 Wind. - 1.10 Precipitation. - 1.11 Chemical tracers. - 1.11.1 Conventional tracers. - 1.11.2 Light attenuation and scattering. - 1.11.3 Oxygen isotope: δ18O. - 1.11.4 Helium-3; helium/heat ratio. - 1.12 Transient chemical tracers. - 1.12.1 Tritium. - 1.12.2 Radiocarbon. - 1.12.3 Chlorofluorocarbons. - 1.12.4 Radon-222. - 1.12.5 Sulfur hexachloride. - 1.12.6 Strontium-90. - Chapter 2 Data Processing and Presentation. - 2.1 Introduction. - 2.2 Calibration. - 2.3 Interpolation. - 2.4 Data presentation. - 2.4.1 Introduction. - 2.4.2 Vertical profiles. - 2.4.3 Vertical sections. - 2.4.4 Horizontal maps. - 2.4.5 Map projections. - 2.4.6 Characteristic or property versus property diagrams. - 2.4.7 Time-series presentation. - 2.4.8 Histograms. - 2.4.9 New directions in graphical presentation. - Chapter 3 Statistical Methods and Error Handling. - 3.1 Introduction. - 3.2 Sample distributions. - 3.3 Probability. - 3.3.1 Cumulative probability functions. - 3.4 Moments and expected values. - 3.4.1 Unbiased estimators and moments. - 3.4.2 Moment generating functions. - 3.5 Common probability density functions. - 3.6 Central limit theorem. - 3.7 Estimation. - 3.8 Confidence intervals. - 3.8.1 Confidence interval for μ (σ known) 3.8.2 Confidence interval for μ (σ unknown) 3.8.3 Confidence interval for σ^2. - 3.8.4 Goodness-of-fit test. - 3.9 Selecting the sample size. - 3.10 Confidence intervals for altimeter bias estimates. - 3.11 Estimation methods. - 3.11.1 Minimum variance unbiased estimation. - 3.11.2 Method of moments. - 3.11.3 Maximum likelihood. - 3.12 Linear estimation (regression). - 3.12.1 Method of least squares. - 3.12.2 Standard error of the estimate. - 3.12.3 Multivariate regression. - 3.12.4 A computational example of matrix regression. - 3.12.5 Polynomial curve fitting with least squares. - 3.12.6 Relationship between least-squares and maximum likelihood. - 3.13 Relationship between regression and correlation. - 3.13.1 The effects of random errors on correlation. - 3.13.2 The maximum likelihood correlation estimator. - 3.13.3 Correlation and regression: cause and effect. - 3.14 Hypothesis testing. - 3.14.1 Significance levels and confidence intervals for correlation. - 3.14.2 Analysis of variance and the F-distribution. - 3.15 Effective degrees of freedom. - 3.1 5.1 Trend estimates and the integral time scale. - 3.16 Editing and despiking techniques: the nature of errors. - 3.16.1 Identifying and removing errors. - 3.16.2 Propagation of error. - 3.16.3 Dealing with numbers: the statistics of roundoff. - 3.16.4 Gauss-Markov theorem. - 3.17 Interpolation: filling the data gaps. - 3.17.1 Equally and unequally spaced data. - 3.17.2 Interpolation methods. - 3.17.3 Interpolating gappy records: practical examples. - 3.18 Covariance and the covariance matrix. - 3.18.1 Covariance and structure functions. - 3.18.2 A computational example. - 3.18.3 Multivariate distributions. - 3.19 Bootstrap and jackknife methods. - 3.19.1 Bootstrap method. - 3.19.2 Jackknife method. - Chapter 4 The Spatial Analyses of Data Fields. - 4.1 Traditional block and bulk averaging. - 4.2 Objective analysis. - 4.2.1 Objective mapping: examples. - 4.3 Empirical orthogonal functions. - 4.3.1 Principal axes of a single vector time series (scatter plot). - 4.3.2 EOF computation using the scatter matrix method. - 4.3.3 EOF computation using singular value decomposition. - 4.3.4 An example: deep currents near a mid-ocean ridge. - 4.3.S Interpretation of EOFs. - 4.3.6 Variations on conventional EOF analysis. - 4.4 Normal mode analysis. - 4.4.1 Vertical normal modes. - 4.4.2 An example: normal modes of semidiurnal frequency. - 4.4.3 Coastal-trapped waves (CTWs). - 4.5 Inverse methods. - 4.5.1 General inverse theory. - 4.5.2 Inverse theory and absolute currents. - 4.5.3 The IWEX internal wave problem. - 4.5.4 Summary of inverse methods. - Chapter 5 Time-series Analysis Methods. - 5.1 Basic concepts. - 5.2 Stochastic processes and stationarity. - 5.3 Correlation functions. - 5.4 Fourier analysis. - 5.4.1 Mathematical formulation. - 5.4.2 Discrete time series. - 5.4.3 A computational example. - 5.4.4 Fourier analysis for specified frequencies. - 5.4.5 The fast Fourier transform. - 5.5 Harmonic analysis. - 5.5.1 A least-squares method. - 5.5.2 A computational example. - 5.5.3 Harmonic analysis of tides. - 5.5.4 Choice of constituents. - 5.5.5 A computational example for tides. - 5.5.6 Complex demodulation. - 5.6 Spectral analysis. - 5.6.1 Spectra of deterministic and stochastic processes. - 5.6.2 Spectra of discrete series. - 5.6.3 Conventional spectral methods. - 5.6.4 Spectra of vector series. - 5.6.5 Effect of sampling on spectral estimates. - 5.6.6 Smoothing spectral estimates (windowing). - 5.6.7 Smoothing spectra in the frequency domain. - 5.6.8 Confidence intervals on spectra. - 5.6.9 Zero-padding and prewhitening. - 5.6.10 Spectral analysis of unevenly spaced time series. - 5.6.11 General spectral bandwidth and Q of the system. - 5.6.12 Summary of the standard spectral analysis approach. - 5.7 Spectral analysis (parametric methods). - 5.7.1 Some basic concepts. - 5.7.2 Autoregressive power spectral estimation. - 5.7.3 Maximum likelihood spectral estimation. - 5.8 Cross-spectral analysis. - 5.8.1 Cross-correlation functions. - 5.8.2 Cross-covariance method. - 5.8.3 Fourier transform method. - 5.8.4 Phase and cross-amplitude functions. - 5.8.S Coincident and quadrature spectra. - 5.8.6 Coherence spectrum (coherency). - 5.8.7 Frequency response of a linear system. - 5.8.8 Rotary cross-spectral analysis. - 5.9 Wavelet analysis. - 5.9.1 The wavelet transform. - 5.9.2 Wavelet algorithms. - 5.9.3 Oceanographic examples. - 5.9.4 The S-transformation. - 5.9.5 The multiple filter technique. - 5.10 Digital filters. - 5.10.1 Introduction. - 5.10.2 Basic concepts. - 5.10.3 Ideal filters. -
    Location: AWI Reading room
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  • 2
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Amsterdam : Elsevier
    Call number: AWI G2-18-91738
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: XI, 716 Seiten , Illustrationen
    Edition: third edition
    ISBN: 9780123877826
    Language: English
    Note: Contents: Preface. - Acknowledgments. - 1. Data Acquisition and Recording. - 1.1 Introduction. - 1.2 Basic Sampling Requirements. - 1.3 Temperature. - 1.4 Salinity. - 1.5 Depth or Pressure. - 1.6 Sea-Level Measurement. - 1.7 Eulerian Currents. - 1.8 Lagrangian Current Measurements. - 1.9 Wind. - 1.10 Precipitation. - 1.11 Chemical Tracers. - 1.12 Transient Chemical Tracers. - 2. Data Processing and Presentation. - 2.1 Introduction. - 2.2 Calibration. - 2.3 Interpolation. - 2.4 Data Presentation. - 3. Statistical Methods and Error Handling. - 3.1 Introduction. - 3.2 Sample Distributions. - 3.3 Probability. - 3.4 Moments and Expected Values. - 3.5 Common PDFs. - 3.6 Central Limit Theorem. - 3.7 Estimation. - 3.8 Confidence Intervals. - 3.9 Selecting the Sample Size. - 3.10 Confidence Intervals for Altimeter-Bias Estimates. - 3.11 Estimation Methods. - 3.12 Linear Estimation (Regression). - 3.13 Relationship between Regression and Correlation. - 3.14 Hypothesis Testing. - 3.15 Effective Degrees of Freedom. - 3.16 Editing and Despiking Techniques: The Nature of Errors. - 3.17 Interpolation: Filling the Data Gaps. - 3.18 Covariance and the Covariance Matrix. - 3.19 The Bootstrap and Jackknife Methods. - 4. The Spatial Analyses of Data Fields. - 4.1 Traditional Block and Bulk Averaging. - 4.2 Objective Analysis. - 4.3 Kriging. - 4.4 Empirical Orrhogonal Functions. - 4.5 Extended Empirical Orrhogonal Functions. - 4.6 Cyclostationary EOFs. - 4.7 Factor Analysis. - 4.8 Normal Mode Analysis. - 4.9 Self Organizing Maps. - 4.10 Kalman Filters. - 4.11 Mixed Layer Depth Estimation. - 4.12 Inverse Methods. - 5. Time Series Analysis Methods. - 5.1 Basic Concepts. - 5.2 Stochastic Processes and Stationarity. - 5.3 Correlation Functions. - 5.4 Spectral Analysis. - 5.5 Spectral Analysis (Parametric Methods). - 5.6 Cross-Spectral Analysis. - 5.7 Wavelet Analysis. - 5.8 Fourier Analysis. - 5.9 Harmonic Analysis. - 5.10 Regime Shift Detection. - 5.11 Vector Regression. - 5.12 Fractals. - 6. Digital Filters. - 6.1 Introduction. - 6.2 Basic Concepts. - 6.3 Ideal Filters. - 6.4 Design of Oceanographic Filters. - 6.5 Running-Mean Filters. - 6.6 Godin-Type Filters. - 6.7 Lanczos-window Cosine Filters. - 6.8 Butterworth Filters. - 6.9 Kaiser-Bessel Filters. - 6.10 Frequency-Domain (Transform) Filtering. - References. - Appendix A: Units in Physical Oceanography. - Appendix B: Glossary of Statistical Terminology. - Appendix C: Means, Variances and Moment,Generating Functions for Some Common Continuous Variables. - Appendix D: Statistical Tables. - Appendix E: Correlation Coefficients at the 5% and 1% Levels of Significance for Various Degrees of Freedom v. - Appendix F: Approximations and Nondimensional Numbers in Physical Oceanography. - Appendix G: Convolution. - Index.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2015-03-01
    Description: A major ( M w 7.7) earthquake occurred on October 28, 2012 along the Queen Charlotte Fault Zone off the west coast of Haida Gwaii (formerly the Queen Charlotte Islands). The earthquake was the second strongest instrumentally recorded earthquake in Canadian history and generated the largest local tsunami ever recorded on the coast of British Columbia. A field survey on the Pacific side of Haida Gwaii revealed maximum runup heights of up to 7.6 m at sites sheltered from storm waves and 13 m in a small inlet that is less sheltered from storms (L eonard and B ednarski 2014 ). The tsunami was recorded by tide gauges along the coast of British Columbia, by open-ocean bottom pressure sensors of the NEPTUNE facility at Ocean Networks Canada’s cabled observatory located seaward of southwestern Vancouver Island, and by several DART stations located in the northeast Pacific. The tsunami observations, in combination with rigorous numerical modeling, enabled us to determine the physical properties of this event and to correct the location of the tsunami source with respect to the initial geophysical estimates. The initial model results were used to specify sites of particular interest for post-tsunami field surveys on the coast of Moresby Island (Haida Gwaii), while field survey observations (L eonard and B ednarski 2014 ) were used, in turn, to verify the numerical simulations based on the corrected source region. ©2014 Springer Basel
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-11-01
    Description: The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami generated off the coast of Sumatra on 26 December 2004 was recorded by a large number of tide gauges throughout the World Ocean. This study uses gauge records from 173 sites to examine the characteristics and energy decay of the tsunami waves from this event in the Indian, Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Findings reveal that the decay ( e -folding) time of the tsunami wave energy within a given oceanic basin is not uniform, as previously reported, but depends on the absorption characteristics of the shelf adjacent to the coastal observation site and the time for the waves to reach the site from the source region. In general, the decay times for island and open-ocean bottom stations are found to be shorter than for coastal mainland stations. Decay times for the 2004 Sumatra tsunami ranged from about 13 h for islands in the Indian Ocean to 40–45 h for mainland stations in the North Pacific. ©2011 Springer Basel AG
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2007-03-01
    Description: The M w = 9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the northwest coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated a catastrophic tsunami that was recorded by a large number of tide gauges throughout the World Ocean. Part 1 of our study of this event examines tide gauge measurements from the Indian Ocean region, at sites located from a few hundred to several thousand kilometers from the source area. Statistical characteristics of the tsunami waves, including wave height, duration, and arrival time, are determined, along with spectral properties of the tsunami records. ©2007 Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel,
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
    Electronic ISSN: 1420-9136
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2013-09-01
    Description: The major ( M w = 8.8) Chilean earthquake of 27 February 2010 generated a trans-oceanic tsunami that was observed throughout the Pacific Ocean. Waves associated with this event had features similar to those of the 1960 tsunami generated in the same region by the Great ( M w = 9.5) 1960 Chilean Earthquake. Both tsunamis were clearly observed on the coast of British Columbia. The 1960 tsunami was measured by 17 analog pen-and-paper tide gauges, while the 2010 tsunami was measured by 11 modern digital coastal tide gauges, four NEPTUNE-Canada bottom pressure recorders located offshore from southern Vancouver Island, and two nearby open-ocean DART stations. The 2010 records were augmented by data from seven NOAA tide gauges on the coast of Washington State. This study examines the principal characteristics of the waves from the 2010 event (height, period, duration, and arrival and travel times) and compares these properties for the west coast of Canada with corresponding properties of the 1960 tsunami. Results show that the 2010 waves were approximately 3.5 times smaller than the 1960 waves and reached the British Columbia coast 1 h earlier. The maximum 2010 wave heights were observed at Port Alberni (98.4 cm) and Winter Harbour (68.3 cm); the observed periods ranged from 12 min at Port Hardy to 110–120 min at Prince Rupert and Port Alberni and 150 min at Bamfield. The open-ocean records had maximum wave heights of 6–11 cm and typical periods of 7 and 15 min. Coastal and open-ocean tsunami records revealed persistent oscillations that “rang” for 3–4 days. Tsunami energy occupied a broad band of periods from 3 to 300 min. Estimation of the inverse celerity vectors from cross-correlation analysis of the deep-sea tsunami records shows that the tsunami waves underwent refraction as they approached the coast of Vancouver Island with the direction of the incoming waves changing from an initial direction of 340° True to a direction of 15° True for the second train of waves that arrived 7 h later after possible reflection from the Marquesas and Hawaiian islands. ©2012 Springer Basel AG
    Print ISSN: 0033-4553
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 1988-10-01
    Print ISSN: 0739-0572
    Electronic ISSN: 1520-0426
    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 1999-07-01
    Print ISSN: 0739-0572
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    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2003-02-01
    Print ISSN: 0739-0572
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    Topics: Geography , Geosciences , Physics
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2006-11-01
    Description: The M w=9.3 megathrust earthquake of December 26, 2004 off the coast of Sumatra in the Indian Ocean generated a catastrophic tsunami that caused widespread damage in coastal areas and left more than 226,000 people dead or missing. The Sumatra tsunami was accurately recorded by a large number of tide gauges throughout the world's oceans. This paper examines the amplitudes, frequencies and wave train structure of tsunami waves recorded by tide gauges located more than 20,000 km from the source area along the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America. ©2006 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2006
    Print ISSN: 0169-3298
    Electronic ISSN: 1573-0956
    Topics: Geosciences , Physics
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