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  • 1
    ISSN: 1432-0630
    Keywords: 61.80 ; 66.30
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Mechanical Engineering, Materials Science, Production Engineering, Mining and Metallurgy, Traffic Engineering, Precision Mechanics , Physics
    Notes: Abstract Ion-beam mixing was measured in immiscible Cu bilayer systems after Kr irradiation at 6 K and at 295 K. It was observed that for the systems which form miscible liquids but which have limited solid solubility, Cu-Nb and Cu-Bi, mixing occurs at 6 but not at 295 K. For a system which is not miscible in either the solid or liquid state, mixing does not occur at either 6 or 295 K. Mixing was also measured in pure Cu isotope bilayer specimens,63Cu–65Cu, to provide a standard for the other measurements. The results are interpreted on the basis of an atomistic model of ion beam mixing. The model assumes that point defects are created in the initial phases of the cascade evolution, and that these defects migrate during the later ‘thermal spike’ phase.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 53 (1988), S. 1820-1822 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: The process of hydrogen-induced amorphization of the equilibrium intermetallic compound Zr3Al is compared to ion-irradiation-induced amorphization of the same compound. In contrast to ion irradiation, where almost complete chemical disordering precedes the onset of amorphization, hydrogenation of Zr3Al causes no appreciable change in long-range order prior to amorphization. Electron microscopy reveals apparent homogeneous nucleation of the amorphous phase, and striking similarities to martensitic microstructures. The maximum lattice dilation observed prior to amorphization by hydrogen absorption is identical to that found during irradiation, indicating that lattice expansion is a common measure of the crystal instability induced by different solid-state processing techniques.
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  • 3
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Oxford, UK : Blackwell Publishing Ltd
    Journal of food science 49 (1984), S. 0 
    ISSN: 1750-3841
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition , Process Engineering, Biotechnology, Nutrition Technology
    Notes: The Time-Intensity (TI) method was used to evaluate the perception of bitterness in beer. Testing methodology described in the literature was evaluated and modified as needed. A digitizer was used as an input device for transferring judges’TI curves to a computer. The computer utilized the digitized plots to estimate rates of increasing and decreasing bitterness based on curve fitting. Duration of bitterness, maximum intensity, and time to reach maximum intensity of different beers were also evaluated. Statistical analysis of the data was used to obtain reliable quantitative results from the TI curves. Different brands of beers were compared by this technique. A comparison of results obtained with TI and graphic scaling methods is also described.
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  • 4
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    s.l. : American Chemical Society
    Journal of the American Chemical Society 76 (1954), S. 5886-5887 
    ISSN: 1520-5126
    Source: ACS Legacy Archives
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1365-2486
    Source: Blackwell Publishing Journal Backfiles 1879-2005
    Topics: Biology , Energy, Environment Protection, Nuclear Power Engineering , Geography
    Notes: The effect of elevated carbon dioxide levels on total bacterial communities was studied in a series of controlled and replicated model terrestrial ecosystems over a period of 38 weeks. The bacterial community was profiled using Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of bacterial 16S rRNA gene fragments amplified by the Polymerase Chain Reaction from DNA extracted directly from soil. Bacterial community DGGE profiles provided three major findings: (i) there was a high degree of profile similarity after ≈ 12 weeks (one plant generation); (ii) whilst overall DGGE profile was maintained over the 38 weeks (three plant generations), the banding patterns became more diverse with time; (iii) DGGE data provided no evidence for a shift in bacterial community structure resulting from exposure of the ecosystem to an increased atmospheric CO2 level.
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  • 6
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    Woodbury, NY : American Institute of Physics (AIP)
    Applied Physics Letters 74 (1999), S. 3326-3328 
    ISSN: 1077-3118
    Source: AIP Digital Archive
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: We present real-time surface x-ray scattering measurements during homoepitaxial growth of GaN by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. We observed intensity oscillations corresponding to the completion of each monolayer during layer-by-layer growth. The growth rate was found to be temperature independent and Ga-transport limited. Transitions between step-flow, layer-by-layer, and three-dimensional growth modes were determined as a function of temperature and growth rate. © 1999 American Institute of Physics.
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  • 7
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: Studies have been made by a sorption-desorption procedure on the diffusion of water vapor at relative humidities of from 30 to 85% into the polymers, polyvinyl acetate cellulose acetate (37.9% acetyl), cellulose nitrate (12.0% N), 6-10 nylon, and polyvinyl alcohol. Diffusion of water in polyvinyl acetate obeys Fick's law at temperatures of from 30 to 50°C. and also at 22°C., which is below the second-order transition. The energy of activation for diffusion of water into polyvinyl acetate is 15 kcal. per mole and at 40°C. the diffusion coefficient is 7 × 10-6 cm.2/min. In contrast to the results with organic vapors, the diffusion coefficient for water is found to be independent of concentration of water in the polyvinyl acetate. Similar behavior is found for diffusion of water at 40° into cellulose acetate, cellulose nitrate, and 6-10 nylon. The chief difference is that for these three polymers the diffusion departs mildly from Fick's law at the later stages of some of the sorption and desorption experiments. This generally uncomplicated diffusion of water in these three polymers contrasts with the markedly anomalous diffusion found for organic vapors such as methanol and acetone into cellulose acetate and nitrate. With polyvinyl alcohol the diffusion of water is distinctly anomalous and closely resembles the non-Fickian diffusion of organic vapors in cellulose acetate and nitrate. One consequence is that the rate of sorption and desorption of water in polyvinyl alcohol is considerably slower than in the other polymers and is also concentration dependent.
    Additional Material: 7 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 0022-3832
    Keywords: Chemistry ; Polymer and Materials Science
    Source: Wiley InterScience Backfile Collection 1832-2000
    Topics: Chemistry and Pharmacology , Physics
    Notes: The influence of water vapor on the rate of diffusion of organic molecules has been studied at 40°C. by the sorption method for the systems water-acetone-polyvinyl acetate, water-carbon tetrachloride-polyvinyl acetate, water-acetone-cellulose acetate (37.9% acetyl) and water-benzene-polystyrene. For the first three systems the rate of diffusion of the organic vapor is markedly faster for the mixture of water and organic vapor than for the pure organic vapor. With polyvinyl acetate, the rate of diffusion of 80 mm. of acetone is increased about 25-fold if 36 mm. of water vapor is mixed with the acetone. Diffusion of the larger carbon tetrachloride molecule is accelerated by water even more than is acetone. Water vapor at a pressure of 36 mm. causes about a 30-fold increase in the rate of diffusion of 80 mm. of acetone into cellulose acetate even though the diffusion of acetone itself into cellulose acetate is anomalous. With polystyrene the presence of water vapor causes no acceleration of the diffusion of benzene which is the expected result since, in contrast to the other two polymers, polystyrene sorbs only very small amounts of water. It is concluded that the marked effect of water vapor on the diffusion of organic vapors into polyvinyl acetate and cellulose acetate involves (a) a rapid diffusion of water into the polymer and (b) more rapid diffusion of the organic vapor into the “water plasticized” polymer than into the dry polymer.
    Additional Material: 3 Ill.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: air-liquid interface ; complex fluids ; surfactant adsorption
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract The specular reflection of neutrons, in combination with isotopic labeling, has been shown to be a powerful technique for the study of surfactant absorption at the air-liquid interface. It can be used to obtain adsorbed amounts in complex multicomponent systems and to determine the structure of the adsorbed monolayer. The adsorption of the alkyl polyoxyethylene nonionics surfactant and mixtures of anionic and cationic surfactants with the nonionic surfactants is described. The effects of temperature, electrolyte, and less polar solvents (the addition of sorbitol) to the adsorption and structure are discussed.
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1572-9567
    Keywords: adsorption ; hydrophilic interface ; mixed surfactants ; neutron reflectivity
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Physics
    Notes: Abstract Specular neutron reflection has been used to determine the structure and composition of the mixed ionic–non-ionic surfactants adsorbed at the hydrophilic silica solid/water interface. Measurements on two different mixed surfactant systems are reported: the cationic/nonionic mixture of hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide, C16TAB, and hexaethylene glycol monododecyl ether, C12E6, and the anionic/nonionic mixture of sodium dodecyl sulfate, and C12E6. For the C16TAB–C12E6 mixture, pH is shown to have a dramatic effect on the relative affinity for adsorption of the two surfactants at the interface.
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