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  • 1
    Keywords: stratosphere ; ozone ; aerosol
    Description / Table of Contents: Assessments of stratospheric ozone have been conducted for nearly two decades and have evolved from describing ozone morphology to estimating ozone trends, and then to attribution of those trends. Stratospheric aerosol has only been integrated in assessments in the context of their effects on ozone chemistry and has not been critically evaluated itself. As a result, the Assessment of Stratospheric Aerosol Properties (ASAP) has been carried out by the WCRP project on Stratospheric Process and their Role in Climate (SPARC). The objective of this report is to present a systematic analysis of the state of knowledge of stratospheric aerosols including their precursors. It includes an examination of precursor concentrations and trends, measurements of stratospheric aerosol properties, trends in those properties, and modeling of aerosol formation, transport, and distribution in both background and volcanic conditions. The scope of this report is extensive; however, some aspects of stratospheric aerosol science have been deliberately excluded. For instance, we have not attempted to include an examination of polar stratospheric clouds (PSCs) or other clouds (such as cirrus clouds) occurring at or above the tropopause except in as much as they influence aerosol observations. Polar stratospheric clouds are the subject of a separate SPARC activity. We have produced a gap-free aerosol data base for use beyond this report. This required some new analysis that has not previously appeared in the technical literature. Similarly, the trend analysis required the development of a new analysis technique that is the subject of an article published in the Journal of Geophysical Research. New work is clearly identified in the present report. ASAP began with a general kick-off meeting in November 2001 at CNES in Paris, France. There were also three chapter lead meetings in Nice, France (April 2003), in Frankfurt, Germany (July 2003) and in Lexington, Massachusetts, USA (January 2004). The final report is the result of concerted effort by scientists world-wide who continue to work toward understanding the measurements and processes controlling stratospheric aerosol. Their work was supported by their host institutions and funding agencies that include the WCRP and the SPARC Office (in Paris and Toronto), as well as Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., NASA, the Universities of Frankfurt and Wyoming, and ETH Zurich. An initial overview of ASAP appeared in the SPARC Newsletter No. 23 in July 2004.
    Pages: Online-Ressource (XXIV, 322 Seiten)
    Language: English
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  • 2
    Electronic Resource
    Electronic Resource
    [s.l.] : Nature Publishing Group
    Nature 373 (1995), S. 399-404 
    ISSN: 1476-4687
    Source: Nature Archives 1869 - 2009
    Topics: Biology , Chemistry and Pharmacology , Medicine , Natural Sciences in General , Physics
    Notes: [Auszug] The eruption of Mt Pinatubo in June 1991 caused the largest perturbation this century to the participate content of the stratosphere. The radiative influence of the injected particles put an end to several years of globally warm surface temperatures. At the same time, the combined effect of ...
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2018-06-05
    Description: Three SAGE III instruments are being built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corporation in Boulder, Colorado (USA). SAGE III is a fourth generation instrument that incorporates robust elements of its predecessors [SAM II, SAGE, SAGE II] while incorporating new design elements. The first of these will be launched aboard a Russian Meteor/3M platform in May 1999. SAGE III will add measurements of O2-A band from which density and temperature profiles are retrieved. This feature should improve refraction and Rayleigh computations over earlier. Additionally, the linear array of detectors will permit on-orbit wavelength calibration from observations of the exo-atmospheric solar Fraunhofer spectrum.
    Keywords: Meteorology and Climatology
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  • 4
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: In the aftermath of the eruption of Mt. Pinatubo, multiwavelength stratospheric aerosol extinction measurements by the satellite-borne Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE II) revealed the presence of a previously unobserved mode of aerosol that exhibited high extinction but a small inferred particle size. This mode may represent a transitional phase between the very small aerosol created by gas-to-particle conversion and a quasi-steady state, post-volcanic aerosol that exhibits both large extinction and large particle size. The presence of a transitional small aerosol mode may have a significant impact on chemical and radiative processes in the stratosphere.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Geophysical Research Letters (ISSN 0094-8276); 19; 21; p. 2179-2182.
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  • 5
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: An aerosol size distribution model for the stratosphere is inferred based on 5 years of Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II measurements of multispectral aerosol and water vapor extinction. The SAGE II aerosol and water vapor extinction data strongly suggest that there is a critical particle radius below which there is a relatively weak dependence of particle number density with size and above which there are few, if any, particles. A segmented power law model, as a simple representation of this dependence, is used in theoretical calculations and intercomparisons with a variety of aerosol measurements including dustsondes, longwave lidar, and wire impactors and shows a consistently good agreement.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 96; 22
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  • 6
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Physical properties of the stratospheric aerosol population are inferred from cloud-free SAGE II multiwavelength extinction measurements in the Antarctic during late summer (February/March) and spring (September/October, November). Seasonal changes in these properties are used to infer physical processes occurring in the Antarctic stratosphere over the course of the winter. The analysis suggests that the apparent springtime cleansing of the Antarctic stratosphere is the result of aerosol redistribution through subsidence of the polar vortex air mass and sedimentation of large polar stratospheric cloud particles. The analysis also suggests that vortex processes are responsible for a significant downward transport of aerosol through the tropopause.
    Keywords: ENVIRONMENT POLLUTION
    Type: Journal of Geophysical Research (ISSN 0148-0227); 98; D12; p. 23,003-23,012
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  • 7
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Multispectra aerosol extinction data for the fall and spring of 1987 measured by the SAGE II sensor are employed to determine the physical characteristics of aerosols within the springtime Antarctic polar vortex. Attention is given to the physical processes that give rise to the apparent springtime 'cleansing' of the Antarctic stratosphere. The inferred vertical and radial structure compare favorably with in situ measurements but yield a previously unavailable 2D structure to the distribution of aerosols within the polar vortex. The springtime 'cleansing' of the Antarctic stratosphere is found to be a result of both large-scale subsidence and the preferential removal of large particles by the nucleation and subsequent sedimentation of polar stratospheric clouds.
    Keywords: GEOPHYSICS
    Type: In: Conference on the Middle Atmosphere, 8th, Atlanta, GA, Jan. 5-10, 1992, Preprints (A93-49361 21-47); p. 47-51.
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  • 8
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: Polar stratospheric clouds (PSC's) provide surfaces for heterogeneous processes which can dramatically alter the normal partitioning of odd nitrogen and chlorine families in the winter polar stratospheres, setting up conditions for significant ozone depletion as manifested in the springtime Antarctic ozone hole. The spatial and temporal distribution of PSC's is important for parameterizing PSC occurrence in multidimensional photochemical models whose use is essential for fully understanding observed Antarctic ozone losses as well as for accessing the possibility of a similar phemonenon occurring in the future in the Arctic. The Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement (SAM) 2 sensor, a single-channel (1mu m) photometer launched into a Sun-synchronous orbit aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite in October 1978, provided a unique database to establish the climatology of PSC's. Poole and Pitts (1994) used the record of high-latitude aerosol extinction obtained by SAM II from 1979-1989 to establish the climatology of PSC occurrences in the Arctic and Antarctic. Unfortunately, little information about PSC composition or type was detectable from the single-wavelength SAM II data.
    Keywords: Environment Pollution
    Type: ; 108-110
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  • 9
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: A technique is described which combines up to three channels of imagery into a single 8-bit composite color image. Each image controls a specific color or colors (red, green, or blue) in the resultant color composite image, allowing for improved interpretation of scene characteristics. The technique is a useful tool for the forecaster and satellite image analyst. In addition to providing the capability of displaying multichannel images on an 8-bit desktop color workstation, the technique allows sophisticated image manipulation to be performed.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: In: Conference on Satellite Meteorology and Oceanography, 6th, Atlanta, GA, Jan. 5-10, 1992, Preprints (A93-36051 14-47); p. J92-J95.
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  • 10
    Publication Date: 2011-08-24
    Description: The Geophysics Directorate's 8-bit multispectral color-composite image display technique has been installed on the Satellite Data Processing System at the German Military Geophysical Office in Traben-Trarbach, Germany. The technique simulates 24-bit full-color composites on 8-bit color workstations, combining image data from the NOAA multispectral Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer. The real-time application of this technique to operational satellite data is discussed.
    Keywords: INSTRUMENTATION AND PHOTOGRAPHY
    Type: American Meteorological Society, Bulletin (ISSN 0003-0007); 73; 6, Ju
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