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  • 1
    Monograph available for loan
    Monograph available for loan
    Johannesburg : Geological Soc. of South Africa
    Call number: 9/M 09.0092
    Type of Medium: Monograph available for loan
    Pages: xii, 691 S.
    ISBN: 1919908773 , 978-1-919908-77-9
    Classification: A.3.3.
    Location: Reading room
    Branch Library: GFZ Library
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  • 2
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    In:  Geological Society Special Publication 206: 247-269.
    Publication Date: 2003-01-01
    Description: Dronning Maud Land contains a fragment of an Archaean craton covered by sedimentary and magmatic rocks of Mesoproterozoic age, surrounded by a Late Mesoproterozoic metamorphic belt. Tectonothermal events at the end of the Mesoproterozoic and in Late Neoproterozoic-Cambrian times (Pan-African) have been proved within the metamorphic belt. In western Dronning Maud Land a juvenile Mesoproterozoic basement was accreted to the craton at c. 1.1 Ga. Mesoproterozoic rocks were also detected by zircon SHRIMP dating of gneisses in central Dronning Maud Land, followed by a long hiatus for which geochronological data are lacking, an amphibolite to granulite facies metamorphism and syntectonic granitoid emplacement of Pan-African age have been dated. During this orogeny older structures were completely overprinted in a sinistral tranpressive deformation regime, leading to the mainly coast-parallel tectonic structures of the East Antarctic Orogen. Putting Antarctica back in its Gondwana position, the East Antarctic Orogen continues northward in East Africa as the East African Orogen, whereas a connection to the marginal Ross Orogen at the Pacific margin of East Antarctica is suggested along the Shackleton Range. The East Antarctic-East African Orogen resulted from closure of the Mozambique Ocean and collision of West and East Gondwana, i.e. western Dronning Maud Land was part of West Gondwana. During this collision the lithospheric mantle probably delaminated, allowing the asthenosphere to underplate the continental crust and producing heat for the voluminous, typically anhydrous, Pan-African granitoids of central Dronning Maud Land.
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  • 3
    Publication Date: 2011-10-13
    Description: Our recent geological survey of the basement of central and northern Madagascar allowed us to re-evaluate the evolution of this part of the East Africa–Antarctica Orogen (EAAO). Five crustal domains are recognized, characterized by distinctive lithologies and histories of sedimentation, magmatism, deformation and metamorphism, and separated by tectonic and/or unconformable contacts. Four consist largely of Archaean metamorphic rocks (Antongil, Masora and Antananarivo Cratons, Tsaratanana Complex). The fifth (Bemarivo Belt) comprises Proterozoic meta-igneous rocks. The older rocks were intruded by plutonic suites at c. 1000 Ma, 820–760 Ma, 630–595 Ma and 560–520 Ma. The evolution of the four Archaean domains and their boundaries remains contentious, with two end-member interpretations evaluated: (1) all five crustal domains are separate tectonic elements, juxtaposed along Neoproterozoic sutures and (2) the four Archaean domains are segments of an older Archaean craton, which was sutured against the Bemarivo Belt in the Neoproterozoic. Rodinia fragmented during the early Neoproterozoic with intracratonic rifts that sometimes developed into oceanic basins. Subsequent Mid-Neoproterozoic collision of smaller cratonic blocks was followed by renewed extension and magmatism. The global ‘Terminal Pan-African’ event (560–490 Ma) finally stitched together the Mid-Neoproterozoic cratons to form Gondwana.
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  • 4
    ISSN: 0016-7835
    Keywords: Key words East Antarctica ; Greenville ; Pan-African ; Rodinia ; Heimefrontfjella
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract  The Heimefrontfjella mountains, Western Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica), are dominantly composed of Grenville-aged (∼1.1 Ga) rocks, which were reworked during the Pan -African orogeny at ∼500 Ma. Three discontinuity-bounded Grenville-aged terranes have been recognized namely (from north to south) the Kottas, Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The terranes contain their own characteristic lithological assemblages, although each is made up of an early supracrustal sequence of metavolcanic and/or metasedimentary gneisses, intruded by various (predominantly granitoid) suites. No older basement upon which the protoliths of these older gneisses were deposited has been recognized. In each terrane the older layered gneisses were intruded by various plutonic suites ranging in age from ∼1150 to ∼1000 Ma. The Vardeklettane terrane is characterized by abundant charnockites and two-pyroxene granulite facies parageneses in metabasites, whereas the Sivorg and Kottas terranes were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies grade. P–T estimates show that peak metamorphic conditions changed from ∼600  °C at 8 kbar in the south, to ∼700  °C at 4 kbar in the northern Sivorg terrane. Regional greenschist retrogression of high-grade assemblages may be of Pan-African age. The Heimefrontfjella terranes were juxtaposed and pervasively deformed during a complex and protracted period of E–W collision orogenesis in a transpressive regime at ∼1.1 Ga. This is manifest as early, gently dipping thrust-related shear fabrics (D1), succeeded by the initiation of an important (D2) steep dextral shear zone (Heimefront shear zone, HSZ), during which the early fabrics and structures were steepened and rotated in an anticlockwise sense. The HSZ is a curvilinear structure which changes from a dextral oblique strike-slip lateral ramp in the north to a steep dip-slip frontal ramp in the south, where it forms the boundary between the Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The Pan-African event is manifested as discrete, low- to medium-temperature ductile to brittle shears (D3) and numerous K/Ar cooling ages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 5
    ISSN: 1437-3262
    Keywords: East Antarctica ; Greenville ; Pan-African ; Rodinia ; Heimefrontfjella
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Geosciences
    Notes: Abstract The Heimefrontfjella mountains, Western Dronning Maud Land (East Antarctica), are dominantly composed of Grenville-aged (≈ 1.1 Ga) rocks, which were reworked during the Pan -African orogeny at ≈500 Ma. Three discontinuity-bounded Grenville-aged terranes have been recognized namely (from north to south) the Kottas, Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The terranes contain their own characteristic lithological assemblages, although each is made up of an early supracrustal sequence of metavolcanic and/or metasedimentary gneisses, intruded by various (predominantly granitoid) suites. No older basement upon which the protoliths of these older gneisses were deposited has been recognized. In each terrane the older layered gneisses were intruded by various plutonic suites ranging in age from ≈ 1150 to ≈1000 Ma. The Vardeklettane terrane is characterized by abundant charnockites and two-pyroxene granulite facies parageneses in metabasites, whereas the Sivorg and Kottas terranes were metamorphosed to amphibolite facies grade. P-T estimates show that peak metamorphic conditions changed from ≈600°C at 8 kbar in the south, to ≈700 °C at 4 kbar in the northern Sivorg terrane. Regional greenschist retrogression of high-grade assemblages may be of Pan-African age. The Heimefrontfjella terranes were juxtaposed and pervasively deformed during a complex and protracted period of E-W collision orogenesis in a transpressive regime at ≈ 1.1 Ga. This is manifest as early, gently dipping thrust-related shear fabrics (D1), succeeded by the initiation of an important (D2) steep dextral shear zone (Heimefront shear zone, HSZ), during which the early fabrics and structures were steepened and rotated in an anticlockwise sense. The HSZ is a curvilinear structure which changes from a dextral oblique strike-slip lateral ramp in the north to a steep dip-slip frontal ramp in the south, where it forms the boundary between the Sivorg and Vardeklettane terranes. The Pan-African event is manifested as discrete, low- to medium-temperature ductile to brittle shears (D3) and numerous K/Ar cooling ages.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 6
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Brachiaria decumbens ; C3 legume ; C4 grass ; nitrogen mineralization ; Pueraria phaseoloides ; soil organic carbon
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Soil carbon distribution with depth, stable carbon isotope ratios in soil organic matter and their changes as a consequence of the presence of legume were studied in three 12-year-old tropical pastures (grass alone —Brachiaria decumbens (C4), legume alone —Pueraria phaseoloides (C3) and grass + legume) on an Oxisol in Colombia. The objective of this study was to determine the changes that occurred in the13C isotope composition of soil from a grass + legume pasture that was established by cultivation of a native savanna dominated by C4 vegetation. The13C natural abundance technique was used to estimate the amount of soil organic carbon originating from the legume. Up to 29% of the organic carbon in soil of the grass + legume pasture was estimated to be derived from legume residues in the top 0–2-cm soil depth, which decreased to 7% at 8–10 cm depth. Improvements in soil fertility resulting from the soil organic carbon originated from legume residues were measured as increased potential rates of nitrogen mineralization and increased yields of rice in a subsequent crop after the grass + legume pasture compared with the grass-only pasture. We conclude that the13C natural abundance technique may help to predict the improvements in soil quality in terms of fertility resulting from the presence of a forage legume (C3) in a predominantly C4 grass pasture.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 7
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Lolium perenne L ; Nitrogen uptake ; Sheep urine-N ; Soil mineral N
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary Sheep urine was applied once in August to 1 m2 plots of a N-deficientLolium perenne-dominated sward at a rate equivalent to a single urination (48 g N m−2) at an upland site. After 17 days herbage dry matter (DM) and total N were increased 19- and 63-fold respectively compared with a control receiving water only. Soil mineral N (NH 4 + and NO 3 − ) levels in the top 20 cm were greater in urine plots until 30 days after urine application when cumulative yields of herbage DM and N were 10 and 21 times greater than those of the control. Maximum recovery of urine N by herbage was only 16% of that applied, and, although swards responded rapidly to urination there were substantial losses of N, perhaps via leaching and/or volatilisation, from the soil-plant system.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 8
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: low temperature ; N assimilation ; N2 fixation ; NH 4 + ; NO 3 − ; white clover
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract White clover plants were grown for 97 days under two temperature regimes (20/15°C and 8/5°C day/night temperatures) and were supplied with either small amounts (a total of 80 mg N pot−1) of ammonium (NH 4 + ) or nitrate (NO 3 − ) nitrogen, or received no mineral N and relied on N2 fixation. Greatest growth and total leaf area of clover plants occurred in N2 fixing and NO 3 − -fed plants grown at 20/15°C and poorest growth occurred in NH 4 + -fed plants grown at 8/5°C. Nodule mass per plant was greater at 8/5°C due to increased nodule numbers rather than increased dry weight per nodule. This compensated to some extent for the reduced N2-fixing activity per unit dry weight of nodule tissue found at the low growth temperature up to 116 d after sowing, but thereafter both activity per nodule dry weight and activity per plant were greater at the low temperature. Highest nitrate reductase activity (NRA) per g fresh weight and total activity per leaf, petiole or root occurred in NO 3 − -fed plants at 8/5°C. Low growth temperature resulted in a greater partitioning of total plant NRA to the roots of NO 3 − -fed plants. The results are considered in relation to the use of N fertiliser in the spring under field conditions.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 9
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: litter decomposition ; Oxisols ; phosphorus fractionation ; root distribution ; root length ; savannas
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Abstract Soil-plant processes which enhance P acquisition and cycling in low-P Oxisols were investigated in a crop rotations and ley pasture systems experiment on the Colombian eastern plains. Comparison of rooting patterns indicated that, despite low available P at depth, there are important differences in root size and distribution among native savanna, introduced forage and crop species which affect their ability to acquire P from these soils. Differences in crop/forage residue decomposition and P release rates suggest that managing the interaction of residue with soil may help slow P fixation reactions. Despite these differences, soil P fractionation measurements indicate that applied P moves preferentially into labile inorganic P pools, and then only slowly via biomass production and microbes into organic P pools under both pastures and crop rotations.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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  • 10
    ISSN: 1573-5036
    Keywords: Beans ; Bleeding sap N ; Nitrate ; Phaseolus vulgaris ; Ureides
    Source: Springer Online Journal Archives 1860-2000
    Topics: Agriculture, Forestry, Horticulture, Fishery, Domestic Science, Nutrition
    Notes: Summary The nitrogenous compounds in the xylem (bleeding) sap of lines of field-grownPhaseolus vulgaris L., known to vary in N2 fixation and yield, were measured during growth with and without N fertilizer. Forty nine-67% of the total sap N was in the form of nitrate in fertilized plants, with low amounts of the ureides, allantoin and allantoic acid (4–12%). Ureides contributed between 17 and 38% to the total sap N of non-fertilized plants, with nitrate generally comprising less than 40%. Among the nine lines grown without fertilizer there were significant differences in the % of the sap N as ureides and also in the total μmol N ml−1 sap. The ASN/GLN ratio (mol/mol) was greater in sap collected from the two parental lines given fertilizer compared with non-fertilized plants. However the actual ratio varied between the parental lines. Together the two amides generally comprised between 43–62% of the amino-N in sap samples from the two parental lines with or without N fertilizer. For each N treatment (fertilized or non-fertilized) there were no obvious differences in sap composition between the high N2 fixing lines and the low N2 fixing lines. However there was generally a positive relationship between the rate of N translocation (total N concn. ml−1 sap x rate of exudation) and the ranking of the lines on the basis of higher N2 fixation rates (acetylene reduction), which was to a large extent independent of the source of N available to the plant.
    Type of Medium: Electronic Resource
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